Monday, March 30, 2020

Best Quotes to Pair With Vintage Photos on Social Media

Best Quotes to Pair With Vintage Photos on Social Media Sharing old photos of people, places, and events on social media is a good way to reminisce and add nostalgia. If youve decided to share your favorite images on social media during a Throwback Thursday, Flashback Friday, or some other tagged event involving sharing, there are some great ways to make your contribution even more special - and good things to know about sharing photos in general: Share one photo a week or less. Dont overwhelm your friends and followers with too many old photos. Just because you found an album of old photos doesnt mean you should bombard your social media followers. Choose one day a week, such as a Throwback Thursday or a Flashback Friday, and maybe even skip a week between postings.Be certain youre sharing only old photos. Dont make the mistake of incorrectly tagging recent photos with something like #tbt (Throwback Thursday), for instance. Stick with the old  pictures you would find in a photo album or a stack of Polaroids. Vintage pictures are hugely popular, so the older, the better.Make sure you choose the best photos - ones that tell a story. For instance, if you were a baseball player, post a picture of the time when you scored your first home run. Post pictures that were taken with your entire family  on vacation. Share a picture of a younger you doing something you still do today.Choose photos that might make people laugh. Unflat tering pictures of yourself from the past always make people smile. The goofier you look, the better. That said, if someone else looks unflattering, you might want to get their permission first. After all, this is supposed to be fun. Add other elements that make the sharing more special, such as a special quote from a famous person. The next time you are sharing vintage images online, try pairing them with some of the following vintage quotes from famous poets, novelists, storytellers, and others - these are sure to give an extra appeal. John Banville The past beats inside me like a second heart. Julian Barnes Memories of childhood were the dreams that stayed with you after you woke. Deb Caletti Summer, after all, is a time when wonderful things can happen to quiet people. For those few months, you’re not required to be who everyone thinks you are, and that cut-grass smell in the air and the chance to dive into the deep end of a pool give you a courage you don’t have the rest of the year. You can be grateful and easy, with no eyes on you, and no past. Summer just opens the door and lets you out. Willa Cather I guess everybody thinks about old times, even the happiest people. Sidonie Gabrielle Colette What a wonderful life I’ve had! I only wish I’d realized it sooner. Walt Disney All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them. Albert Einstein Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile. Ralph Waldo Emerson â€Å"For every minute you are angry, you lose 60 seconds of happiness.† William Faulkner How often have I lain beneath rain on a strange roof, thinking of home. Neil Gaiman I miss the way I took pleasure in small things, even as greater things crumbled. I could not control the world I was in, could not walk away from things or people or moments that hurt, but I took joy in the things that made me happy. Kahlil Gibran Yesterday is but todays memory, and tomorrow is todays dream. Arsene Houssaye Always have old memories, and young hopes. Charlotte Davis Kasl A lifelong blessing for children is to fill them with warm memories of times together. Happy memories become treasures in the heart to pull out on the tough days of adulthood. Elizabeth Lawrence There is a garden in every childhood, an enchanted place where colors are brighter, the air softer, and the morning more fragrant than ever again. Laurie Lee Bees blew like cake-crumbs through the golden air, white butterflies like sugared wafers, and when it wasnt raining, a diamond dust took over which veiled and yet magnified all things. C.S. Lewis Gratitude looks to the Past and love to the Present; fear, avarice, lust, and ambition look ahead. You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream. Cesare Pavese We do not remember days; we remember moments. Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. Stay hungry. Stay foolish. Marcel Proust There are perhaps no days of our childhood we lived so fully as those we spent with a favorite book. Vladimir Nabokov One is always at home in ones past. Eleanor Roosevelt The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams. Dr. SunWolf Some things can only be understood when you’re in a tree house. With a pile of warm chocolate chip cookies. And a book. Charles R. Swindoll Each day of our lives we make deposits in the memory banks of our children. Oprah Winfrey The biggest adventure you can take is to live the life of your dreams. Lisa Whelchel Theres something about childhood friends that you just cant replace. The Wonder Years Memory is a way of holding onto the things you love, the things you are, the things you never want to lose. Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Imagery(or motifs)in William Shakespeares Hamlet

Imagery(or motifs)in William Shakespeares Hamlet In Hamlet, imagery of disease, poison and decay, are used by William Shakespeare for many purposes. Marcellus' line in Act I illustrates the use of this imagery very well, "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark." Corruption is rampant, like a contagious disease infecting the court. The atmosphere of disease serves to heighten the audience's disgust for the events that are taking place in the play. Secondly, disease leads to death, so the diseased society of Denmark is doomed. Because of this sense of doom, there is a slight foreshadowing of the play's tragic ending. The tragic atmosphere is enhanced by the motif of disease and decay. These descriptions of disease, poison, and decay help us to understand the bitter relationships, the anxious, chaotic atmosphere, and also the emotional and moral decay of the characters existing in the play.The image of decay is first used at the end of Act I to help comprehend the depression Hamlet feels in his first soliloquy about suicide.Rosen crantz and GuildensternWhen Hamlet releases the words "O that this too sullied flesh would melt, thaw, and resolve itself into a dew," (I.ii, 129-130) he communicates how he wishes to not exist in this world anymore. An image of Hamlet's flesh rotting and combining with the soil is produced. At this moment, Hamlet's true emotions liberate, and his pain and his yearn for death can be felt. Hamlet continues to say "How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable seem to me all the uses of this world! Fie on't, ah, fie, 'tis an unweeded garden that grows to seed. Things rank and gross in nature possess it merely."(I.ii, 133-137) Here, Hamlet feels that the world around him is useless and in constant chaos. By creating these vivid images of death and decay, Shakespeare lets us peer into...

Thursday, February 20, 2020


CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SUMMARY - Assignment Example The corporation’s vision is to be the customer’s favorite place, hence the best fast food corporation globally. However, this vision is achievable if the firm fully embraces Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) whereby currently it has instituted programs towards in each state. This study will discuss in detail about McDonald’s corporation how it exercises its CSR and some of the areas that need improvement for it to realize its vision. When it comes to CSR, this firm ensures that it does the best as cited by Kathleen Bannan, who is the CSR senior manager. She contended McDonald’s has evolved in how it handles its CSR with the intention of being unique in the market (Singh, 2010). Hence, achieving its goals seen in its establishment of branches in other states that serve quality products. The firm is always making efforts to safeguard environment by using less energy, hence fewer emissions compared to others that have proved to be great emitters in their locations. For instance, all their trucks run on biodiesel, which is normally reused from spent cooking oil (McDonald’s UK 2011). To safeguard environment, the firm also utilizes LED bulbs and waterless urinals to reduce the amount energy used. Apart from using recycled cardboard boxes, it also recycles its packaging materials, hence saving on packaging costs (Lee & Kotler, 2013). Due to its involvement in charitable activities, the company has build it reputation besides fame especially among the youths who love snacks. One program under its organizations is the HACER launched in attempt to minimize schools’ dropout which was on the rise especially among Hispanic students (RMHC, n.d). McDonald’s also gives accommodation to families who have children in hospital through the â€Å"home away from home† program (RMHC, n.d). Despite achievements that the

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Strategic Mangement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Strategic Mangement - Essay Example Basically, the company has witnessed a steady growth in the Australian Wine Industry and is one of the leading export industries especially to the United States. 2. Yellow Tail operates in an environment where there are also competitors who offer the same products and in this case, a SWOT analysis is more appropriate for this task of analysing the environmental factors that affect the organisation’s operations. It defines the relationship between the internal and external environmental factors that can affect an organisation in a bid to deal with its strategic analysis (Robinson 1997). Basically, SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses which represent the internal environment of the firm while opportunities and threats are external environmental factors. The major strengths of the company include the following: The name is unique and interesting, the packaging depicts the famous kangaroo and the pricing is low among other factors. The company is able to offer satisfactory products to its customers abroad as well. Its weaknesses are; it heavily relies on export market, it has limited brands and cannot continue attracting customers over a long period and the fact that it uses limited advertisements is another major weakness which can negatively impact on the organisation. There are different opportunities for the company. The distribution pattern in global markets is a very big opportunity for the company compared to other locally based players in the industry. Using new technology in brewing wine is another opportunity for the company. The other opportunity is the need for adoption of new information and communication technology tools such as the internet to effectively market its products. It can utilize the internet to reach the customers who are beyond the local markets. Through specially designed websites, it can also be possible to market other products that are not found in the local stores. However, one notable threat to Yellow Tail is the

Monday, January 27, 2020

Important Design Principles In Animation Film Studies Essay

Important Design Principles In Animation Film Studies Essay Animations are sort of popular films in the world, due to its visual effect, appealing stories and grace graphic arts, (Compton 1997). Classical animations (2D animation) have stayed relatively the same for 80 years (Jones Oliff 2006). The tools animators used to use to produce an animated film was pen-and-paper medium. However, during the past 10 years, animated films have been through some major changes because technologies of computer generate (CG) animation has created and improved rapidly (Jones Oliff 2006). Jones and Oliff (2006) also mentioned that due to development of CG tools, the important principles of design in the construction of an animated film have significantly changed. Although most animators and animated film industries abandoned the hand-drawn traditional animations and has produced animations by CG, especially after some successful popular animated films such as Sherk 2001 and Toy Story 1995, a few famous master animators, like Andreas Deja who is known becaus e he drew the main characters in Hercules and Who Framed Roger Rabbit still prefer to draw animation by traditional tools (Corliss 2005). This essay will look at the principles of design in the construction of both traditional 2D animation and 3D computer animation. It also will compare 2D and 3D animation and examine the current tend which is to apply 2D traditional animation to 3D computer animation. Three main construction principles of animation design are looked in this essay. First, before shooting animation, there are significant tasks which should be done first. For example, the principles of creating an animated story those audiences enjoy watching, and building up the personalities of animated characters. Besides, designed storyboard is essential for preparation of animations. Next main principle of animation design construction is shooting animation. Principles of shooting traditional 2D animation and 3D computer animation are examined and several differences and similarities between them will be analyzed. First instance is processes of drawing or designing the scenes of an animation both traditional 2D anim ation and 3D computer animation. Next, principles of action of animation, such as straight head action, pose-to-pose action, will be mentioned as well in this stage. In the end of this section, to analyse two main functions of 3D computer animation, squash and stretch and timing and motion, could make traditional animated film more realistic and entertaining. The final stage covers the principles of post production of animated films. The purposes of these tasks after shooting animations are in order to accomplish animations completely and perfectly, such as technologies of overlapping, editing, sound, music and voices. This essay examines the principles of design in the construction of both traditional 2D animation and 3D computer animation from the beginning to the completion of animation. Fundamentals of characters and storyline, target audience and message of film, planning in the design stage Principles of creating an animated story that audience enjoy watching The first step in making animated movies, a group of artists, writers, script writers, directors, computer graphic specialists and producers come together to brainstorm a group of ideas which bring out ideas of characters that match storylines. Most storylines and characters come from books and magazines, or a screen writer/writer creates a character and storyline. However before this happens many simple questions have to be asked for example who is going to be the audience, does the storyline match the audience, what is the story line convoying to the audience, does the character match the storyline and are the characters suitable to convoy a peculiar type of message (How to make an animated Movie, n.d.). Next, the most value of a film is expressing education, when animated stories are chosen, the meaning the stories would express through animation should be considered. Finally when a animated storyline is fully scrutinized by the film development team, by making pilot animated movi e, this is scrutinized by the directors, producers and finally a test audience which is interviewed after the pilot movie to see their reaction, and does it convoy the storyline (Harper 2000). Build up the personalities of animated characters After the storyline is decided, the next step of making an animated movie is the design of the characters. They have got the most important role and they are going to carry the message/story of the movie. This is done by giving the animated characters personalities that is conveyed in the story outline which is one of the key factors that makes a successful animated movie (Savoye and Meyer 2008). Storyboard the preparation for an animation Differences in preparation between traditional animation and 3D computer animation There is an important principle in the preparation for an animation. In any form of an animated movie/scene, a storyboard is made. This is an outline of the animated movie/scene. A storyboard describes the scenes of an animated (movie/scene/story) which includes images and works made by artists, screenwriters, computer animation specialists, producers and story writers. This is done by using artist sketches which is known as a story sketch. In the time before computers, drawings were made to make a scene usually. They had to make 26 drawing for one second of film, each drawing was called a story sketch (Blair 1994). A story board is made that includes the characters/scenes that are going to convey the message/story about the movie. After the first storyboard is drawn, there are regular meetings between the storyboard artists and director (Blair 1994). This is to make sure that the movie is keeping to the story line of the movie; however many discussions and meetings are held to redraw or re-board until the right message is conveyed to the audience(Blair 1994); however with modern technology and the advancement of computer graphics the use of computer animation has allowed animated movies to be easily edited that brings a lot of cost savings and reduce the amount of time is made an animated movie discuss how to redraw or re-board until the final storyboard comes out. Unlike a 2D traditional animation, storyboard artists of 3D computer animation use computer with animation software to create the storyboard. The result is that using computers to redraw or change the storyboard not only reduces more time of meetings and discussion, but also saves money. Important principles of shooting traditional 2D animation and 3D computer animation Drawing or designing the scenes of an animation 1. Traditional 2D Animation Process In the days before there was computers, animation was all done by hand. This was done by creating a series of drawn images. This is what is known as cel animation (Harper 2000). However before an animated movie or cartoon story is created a story board must be made. This gives a visual outline of the animation to be made, from the story board, that gives animators and writers ideas how to synchronize drawing and how to follow the story line which can also include soundtrack music. However, a storyboard is only a rough outline and it is only used as a guide and to test themes, layout and composition for the animation and also decide on the script and edit scenes before large scale production of the animation. The next step of the animation process is the design and timing that is where the characters are decided and refined to the scene, also at this time the sequences of events that are going to take place, and for example the scene angles and character positions are decided. The next stage of the animation process is the production of the animations that is where individual pictures are drawn frame by frame, which is usually done by hand and animators are assigned to individual characters, and artists will design and draw the background of each scene. After this process another one occurs where each frame is placed onto a clear film known as a cel, which the pictures are colored and then photographed for the final animated product and also voice, music and sound are added to the animated scene. 3D computer animation Computer animation follows the same format by filming a sequence of painted cels then using layers, keyframes, and tweening techniques (Harper 2000). The main difference between a 2D and a 3D animation is a 3D animation is made by computer and software, such as Dreamweaver, which is an animated design tool which animators can animate elements of pages with graphical interface (Harper 2000). For example, users design half of the characters face then use Dreamweaver to duplicate it to complete the face. Next, the animated characters are made more real and perfect by computer-generate (CG) because every movement and detail in 3D animation is analyzed and calculated accurately by the system of animation software. B. Principles of action of animation In the early days of film animation, Walt Disney Studios was the first Studio to attract large audiences to their animated films with the like of Snow White (1937), and Pinocchio (1940), this transform animated movies from a novelty form into animated movies being a art form. Walt Disney studios does this by defining twelve principles in animation that makes film animation characters more lifelike and able to catch the attention of the audiences (Lasseter 1987). Lasseter (1987) and Thomas Johnston (1981) pointed the following principles of action of animation which are squash and stretch: shape distortion to accentuate movement, anticipation: leading audiences, staging: the camera view point to show the best action. Straight-ahead and pose to pose action: allowing nothing to finish suddenly. Slow in and slow out: gentle starts and stops. Arcs: The path of actions for example throwing a ball which a ball follows and arcs. Secondary actions: movement of a lizards tail or a bounce in a persons step. Timing: time relations with actions for the illusion of life. Exaggeration: caricature of actions and timing. Solid drawing: Excellent drawing and artist ability. Appeal: audiences are attracted to the characters. Finally these twelve principles underlined the four guiding principles of production firstly Character development by giving characters personality, secondly a story which leads the audience, thirdly acting and emotions making the character life like. Finally, expression and dialogue is giving the character emotion 12 Principles of Animation (Thomas Johnston 1981) 12 Principles of Animation was illustrated clearly by Thomas Johnston (1981) in The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation: Straight-ahead and Pose-to-Pose* Squash and Stretch* Anticipation Staging Slow-in and Slow-out Arcs Secondary Action Timing and Motion* Exaggeration Solid Modeling and Rigging Character Personality Follow-thru and Overlapping Action Following examples are some of 12 principles of animation which are illustrated in Thomas and Johnstons book, The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation: Straight Ahead Action Straight ahead in animation is that sequential order of the frames of animation characters are drawn or set up by the animators. For example, after animators set the first frame with the second one, they the set up rest of the frames until the scene is completed. This is a process where the scene is produced by one drawing or image per frame that the animator. By Thomas Johnston 1981 Pose-to-Pose Action Thomas and Johnston explain that Pose-to-Pose Action Drawing or setting up key poses and then drawing or creating in between images is how Pose-To-Pose animation is done. This is the basic computer keyframe approach to animation. It is excellent for tweaking, timing, and planning out the animation ahead of time. + By Thomas Johnston 1981 quash and Stretch One significant function of 3D animation is to make an animation look more real. Anything in 3D animation will squash and stretch when it is moving. For example, when a ball in animated film is bouncing, it would be squashed and stretched to mimic a real movement of a ball. By Thomas Johnston 1981 By Thomas Johnston 1981 Timing and Motion Timing is most important for presenting a ball in 3D animation fallen like the movement of a real ball. When a ball falls, it is accelerated because of gravity, before the ball touch the ground, all gaps between each frame growing all the process. By Thomas Johnston 1981 III. Principles of post production of animated films Principles of Follow Through and Overlapping Action in animated films Follow Through and Overlapping Action are terminating an action and establishing its relationship to the next action (Thomas and Johnston 1981). Thomas and Johnston (1981) continually explained that the function of follow through is to terminate part of an action, for example, when a person is throwing a ball and the hand continues to move after the ball is released, overlapping action is to start the next action before the first action is completed. The purposes of follow through and overlapping action are to accomplish the animations smoothly. Editing of 2D animated films and 3D computer animation The final stage of animated film production is film editing which is usually the most effect upon consuming part of animated film making (Dmytryk 1984). Film editing is the essential skill which Dmytryk (1984) explains can be defined as an art form and technique, which is done by accumulating and assembling pictures and scenes into a coherent, logical and cohesive story. The film editor does this by assembling the footage; however, the job of an editor is not only about putting pieces of film together. A film editor must use his or her creative thought by using layers of images. It is not only apply these images with the story and follow the script and dialogue, but also considers the addition of music and has well set the pace of the film. In addition, editors might work with the animators and the directors to try gain the best performance that means animators would re-draw scenes over again and redirect and maybe rewrite the film few weeks after the film has finished shooting for m aking the film more cohesive (Dmytryk 1984.) Conclusion Every stages of creating hits animations are crucial, from the beginning to plan every detail, create a story, and build up the personalities of animated characters and shooting animations to the end to finish post production. Whatever using hand-drawn medium or CG tools to produce animations, the important principles of animated design are still involved art of film which is putting moving images on the screen (Jones Oliff 2006). This assay not only covers the important principles of design in the construction of an animated film in every stage, but also analyses both computer garnered animation and classical animation. Three main steps of producing animation-principles of before shooting and shooting and post production an animation- are examined. In addition, 3D computer animation has developed and been used to produce some CG hits animations already. As the result is that some principles of animated design have changed. However, the some important animated principles havent been moved, such as writing an appeal screen story, breathing life into characters (Porter and Susman 2000), or matching the music and voices in animations. Finally, these principles of design in the both construction in traditional 2D animation and 3D computer animation is in order to produce a gorgeous animation. Although animation principles of design in the construction have been changing due to development of CG technologies, the purpose of animation might be similar. How to make animated characters more lifelike, or produce an animation which audiences enjoy watching might be main aims animated industries and animators desire to achieve. Porter and Susman (2000) pointed that 3D animation could create scenes more complex, images more ponderous, and characters more fluid. However, 2D traditional animation could draw in the romantic-realistic style animation (Corliss 2005). Therefore, animated companies and animators should be encouraged to produce animations by the techniques which 2D animations apply to 3D animations. References List 3 D Computer Graphics, (n.d). flash article and images, viewed 17 May, 2010, Animated film making by Pixar, (n.d.), flash article and images, viewed 17 May, 2010, Blair, P, 1994, Cartoon Animation, Walter Foster Publishing, Laguana Hills. Dmytryk, E., (1984). On Film Editing: An Introduction to the Art of Film Construction. Focal Press, Boston Harper, B, 2000, EDC385G Multimedia Authoring at the University of Texas at Austin, viewed 23 April 2010, How to make an animated movie, (n.d.), video, viewed 27 April 2010, How to parenting techniques maya, (n.d.), video, viewed 30 April 2010, How to parenting techniques maya, (n.d.), video, viewed 30 April 2010, Lasseter, J, 1987, Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to 3D Computer Animation, Computer Graphics, pp. 35-44. Savoye, A Meyer, A, 2008, Multi-Layer Level of Detail for Character Animation, The Fifth workshop on Virtual Reality and Physical Simulation Thomas, F., Johnston, O., 1981, reprint 1997, The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Hyperion,pp. 47-69 Youre your own cartoon straight ahead and pose-to-pose, (n.d.).description of video, viewed 3 May 2010),

Sunday, January 19, 2020

A Story from My Memory: The Clash

Memories†¦ past events that tell the history of a person; this makes him or her unique from other people. Memories, if I think about it, I guess I do not have much of that. It is just the way it is for me. It is like my memories are easily removed from my mind so that not much of my history is left. However, despite this, there was this one night a long time ago that I would never forget.I believe it was in the year 1992, though my mind tells me that it is not sure whether it really was. Do you know the feeling of knowing the period in your life when an event happened, yet, at the same time, you are not sure of the time details? I think this is a great example for that. Somewhere in my brain, there is sureness that the event happened during my 5th or 6th year of life. The setting was Saudi Arabia, my homeland, and it was before the beginning of the Desert Storm.Just like every other siblings, my sister and I love staying up late. During that night we planned to stay up all night to chit-chat and play. We planned to do the stuff   normal girls enjoy. The night was beautiful and ideal for that. Children would have loved to enjoy that night, of course, without knowing the following events to happen.There were clear skies. As we lay in bed, there was a sudden flash of light coming from the window. It was really bright! The first thing that came into my mind was to know the source of the light. Without further thinking, I went out to see what that was, and there came what seemed to be the source†¦ it was an explosion. I saw a big explosion in the mid-air.My mind went haywire. As young as I was back then, I may say that I was really vulnerable and fragile. For a moment, I could not move and I was shocked at the huge explosion right in front of my eyes. Now that I think of it, I would surely say that it was no laughing matter, and it was completely nothing like what my sister and I had intended to do that night.The explosion that I saw was the second one a nd I was afraid of the next. I just knew that there was another one coming, and I was right. Ten seconds later, as I stayed to watch what happened next, there was a flying object coming from the same direction! In my mind, I was like saying, â€Å"Oh no! It might hit us!† and then, I saw something that flew from the ground, and it hit that flying object.It exploded! A clash! Voila! Another explosion right before my own eyes! The events were too much to handle. I was so young to see the bad things of the world.My body was pumped with adrenaline as I witnessed the event. I panicked and I was so afraid that all I can think of was to run to my parents’ room. When I reached their room, I saw my father trying to calm my mother. My father was from the military.He gave my mother directions on what to do. He said to her, â€Å"You should take the kids and go with your family out of the city.† Why did he tell her that? Why did we have to leave? My mind was full of questio ns but at the same time all I can do is follow. Afterwards, my father received a phone call from the military base. My father’s reaction was to wear his military uniform, say goodbye to us and leave.My mind, as young as it was, cannot fully understand the happenings that night. However, as the years passed, I learned that that moment was the beginning of the desert storm. It was also only after a while when I learned about the anti-missile system that was used to protect Saudi Arabia was the same thing that protected the people in our place from the ballistic missile heading near our home.The United States provided antiballistic defense during those times to protect the kingdom during the Gulf War. (ARCENT Saudi Arabia (ARCENT-SA) ) Without the protection, who knows what may have happened. I am very thankful that what I witnessed was a series of mid-air explosions instead of ground ones or else wide-ranged death may be my story here.My youthful mind can be said to be not as i nnocent as it may be. To me, the event was a mind-opening one. It made me aware of the nature of humans and the things that they do.   As I look at my young self, I may say that I have already witnessed the harshness of man-made evils that can really kill people. The missiles may not have harmed us physically, but emotionally and intellectually, there have been scars from that event. The mere thought of my father leaving for war where life is like always hanging in line is a very devastating idea for me.People can be harmed by the technology that man builds; at the same time, it can also protect them. The event in my life that I told is a part of my history, maybe not only mine, but also of others who have seen it. Now, as I brought my story to life through my writing, it made me more aware of my life. It made me realize that around us, disasters are possible, natural or artificial. These phenomena take lives as they pass and that we must be ready. Our life on earth is just short and we must make every moment of it count.Bibliography ARCENT Saudi Arabia (ARCENT-SA) . (n.d.). Retrieved June 02, 2010, from Global Security.Org:

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Influence Of Sulphur Dioxide Emissions Environmental Sciences Essay

Biogeochemical cycling is the term which describes the transportation of chemical elements and compounds between compartments, whilst taking into consideration the influences of biology. ( Harrison. R. M and Mora. S. J, 1996 ) . Anthropogenetic activities can impact on these rhythms, for case the consequence of sulfur dioxide emanations on the sulphur rhythm. A big proportion of these sulfurs dioxide emanations are sourced from the combustion of fossil fuels ( Hewitt and Jackson, 2009 ) , which has given rise to an addition in atmospheric deposition of sulfur, a term we may recognize as acerb rain. The undermentioned treatment analyses the beginning of these emanations, how they cause acerb deposition and the effects of it. The sulphur rhythm is comparatively complex and involves several gaseous species ( Manahan, 2005 ) . On land it is found chiefly as sulfide and sulfate ores, whereas in the oceans, it is present as dissolved sulfate ( Cullis and Hirschler, 1980 ) . In the ambiance the key sulphur compounds include hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols and mists, where in footings of pollution the presence of sulfur dioxide is the most important portion of the sulphur rhythm ( Manahan, 2000 ) . The rhythm operates whereby sulfur is continuously transported between the different stages. Ivanov ( 1981 ) has attempted to place the major sulfur fluxes of both anthropogenetic and natural beginnings. Annually about 120b Tg S are extracted by adult male from the geosphere in fossil fuels and sulfur incorporating natural stuffs for the chemical industry. Of this sum 70 Tg S are emitted to the ambiance. Around half of the staying 50 Tg S straight enters rivers, and another portion is applied wi th fertilisers to agricultural land. Natural beginnings lending to the sulphur rhythm include 29 Tg yr-l from volcanic gases. River overflow is the major transportation of sulfur from continents to the ocean with an one-year burden of 224 Tg, where 109 Tg of this is accounted for by anthropogenetic pollution. The entire flux of assorted sulfurs signifiers from pelagic H2O to deposits and farther to the lithosphere sums to 130 Tg yr-l. Anthropogenic sulfur fluxes have now reached a degree that is comparable with natural fluxes and this is expected to increase in most parts of the universe ( Ivanov, 1981 ) . Sulphur dioxide emanations are now one of the largest fluxed in the sulphur rhythm. Sulphur dioxide can arise from natural and semisynthetic beginnings. Natural beginnings include gases from vents, forest fires and from the oxidization of other sulphur compounds such as H sulfide ( Environment Agency, 2010 ) . On the other manus, anthropogenetic activities ensuing in sulfur dioxide emanations include the smelting of ores, warming of pyrites, sulfur excavation and burning of fossil fuels ( Moller, 1984 ) . We are chiefly interested in the emanations from the combustion of fossils fuels, since the oncoming of the industrial revolution has increased the sulfur load in the ambiance dramatically. Hewitt and Jackson ( 2009 ) stated that the anthropogenetic part to the entire sulphur emanation budget, chiefly in the signifier of sulfur dioxide, approaches 75 % , with around 90 % of this derivation from the northern hemisphere. The most abundant beginning of atmospheric sulfur is the combustion of coal and its byproduct ; nevertheless this is hard to quantify due to the ass ortment of coals such as difficult coal, lignite and coal for cookery ( Cullis and Hirschler, 1980 ) . The following most of import beginning of atmospheric sulfur is the combustion of crude oil merchandises, where the coevals of sulfur from this is still increasing ( Cullis and Hirschler, 1980 ) . Even in the absence of air pollution, rain H2O is somewhat acidic ( pH 5.6 ) due to the presence of C dioxide, therefore why the phrase acid rain refers to rain with a pH of below 5 ( Clarke and Tomlin, 1999 ) . Acid rain is caused by sulfur and N oxides come ining the ambiance, where they are converted to sulphuric and azotic acids severally. When these combine with hydrochloric acid from lifting H chloride emanations, these acids so cause acidic precipitation ( Manahan, 2005 ) . Acid deposition is the general term for acid rain, acerb sleet and acid snow etc. There are two types of deposition, moisture and prohibitionist, where moisture involves the transition of sulfur dioxide to sulphuric acid in the presence of wet from the ambiance, and dry deposition occurs when sulfuric acid is converted into sulfate atoms which straight hit the Earth ‘s surface ( Hill, 1997 ) .The same applies to nitrogen oxide. Beginnings of nitrogen oxide include buoy uping and natural combustion of biomass whereas for semisynthetic beginnings the chief 1 is vehicle emanations ( Clarke et al, 2001 ) . Sulphur dioxide is oxidised in the ambiance by a figure of mechanism. In low humidness conditions the most of import reaction is with the hydroxyl extremist ( Harrison and Mora, 1996 ) : SOa‚‚ + OH > HOSOa‚‚ HOSOa‚‚ + Oa‚‚ > SOa‚? + HOa‚‚ SOa‚? + Ha‚‚O > Ha‚‚SOa‚„ Due to sulfuric acid ‘s low vapor force per unit area it can quickly attach to the condensed stage such as aerosol atoms. The majority of Ha‚‚SOa‚„ is lost via wet deposition mechanisms in cloud droplets and precipitation ( Hewitt and Jackson, 2009 ) . In wetting agent climes different reactions occur since cloud H2O droplets are of import in transition of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid. When sulfur dioxide is dissolved in H2O it is in equilibrium with sulphite and bisulphite ions. This can be seen in the undermentioned equations ( Harrison and Mora, 1996 ) : SOa‚‚ ( g ) + Ha‚‚O a†¡? SOa‚‚ ( aq ) SOa‚‚ ( aq ) + Ha‚‚O a†¡? Ha‚?Oa + HSOa‚?a? » HSOa‚?a? » + Ha‚‚O a†¡? Ha‚?Oa + SOa‚a? » Sulphite may be oxidised by atmospheric O but this is a slow procedure unless it is catalysed by a passage metal ion such as Fe. The overall procedure can be seen below, which shows how sulfurous acid, which is a weak acid is converted to Ha‚‚SOa‚„ , a stronger acid ( Harrison and Mora, 1996 ) : 2SOa‚a? » + Oa‚‚ > 2SOa‚„?a? » Sulphur dioxide has a short mean abode clip as it has an atmospheric life-time of yearss, so it may come in the free troposphere but is improbable to come in the stratosphere ( Harrison, 1999 ) . This makes it a regional job since the gas does non transcend the planetary horizontal commixture clip, so it can do taint of the ambiance, hydrosphere, and dirt ( Ivanov, 1981 ) . ‘Sulphur emanations lead to acid deposition far from the beginning ‘ ( UNDP, 2000 ) and can hold inauspicious effects on aquatic ecosystems, trees, dirt and substructure. Schindler ( 1988 ) stated that it is now clear that acid rain has caused widespread acidification of many aquatic ecosystems in the north eastern United States, Canada, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Recent information has shown that juvenile fishes and other beings lower in the nutrient web have seen to be intolerant to higher pH values ( Schindler, 1988 ) . This can do trouble at higher trophic degrees as marauding fish may hunger, which can be the cause of decease even before the direct toxication of the H ion ( Schindler, 1988 ) . Persson ( 1981 ) besides found a lessening in reproduction caused by egg and fry mortality, which once more can impact further up the nutrient web. Damage to woods by acerb rain became noticeable in Germany in the early 1980s, shortly following this other states besides reported similar incidences ( Harrison, 1999 ) . Numerous field and research lab surveies have taken topographic point in peculiar with the ruddy spruce in the Northern hemisphere, as it has suffered widespread freezing hurt, growing decrease and mortality ( DeHayes et al, 1999 ) . The freezing hurt instances in ruddy spruce woods has increased over the past 40 old ages, which coincides with the clip of increased emanations of sulfur and N oxides. However the mechanism for the ruddy spruce diminution is non clearly understood. One account is that exposure of trees to promote SOa‚„?a? » in acerb rain may change C metamorphosis of trees, which can worsen the effects of natural emphasis such as cold and drouth ( Schindler, 1988 ) . Another theory is that acerb deposition mobilizes aluminum in the dirt which reduces soils storage of Ca and its handiness for root consumption. Freezing hurt consequences in the loss of leaf which is critical for photosynthesis and hence growing ( DeHayes et al, 1999 ) . Acid deposition can do corrosion on edifices constructed of limestone such as celebrated cathedrals. In damp conditions sulphur dioxide will change over Ca to carbonate to gypsum ( CaSOa‚„ ) which is more soluble than carbonate, therefore the reacted rock can be removed by disintegration ( Harrison, 1999 ) . Solid gypsum occupies a larger volume than carbonate which leads to flaking and checking of stuff from the surface. To reason we can see that sulfur dioxide emanations from the burning of fossil fuels have greatly impacted on the sulfur rhythm, peculiarly in the last 100 old ages, to the extent where it is now the largest flux in the rhythm. One of the remotion mechanisms of sulfur dioxide emanations is acerb deposition, which has found to hold had black effects on aquatic ecosystems, trees and workss and substructure. Reducing these emanations would be good to the latter and may reconstruct the anthropogenetic flux to a degree below the natural flux in the rhythm.