Monday, December 9, 2019
The National Socialist German WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Party Almost Died One Essay morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblersÃ¢â¬â¢ it had noorganization and no political ideas. But many among the middle classadmired the NazisÃ¢â¬â¢ muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. Andthe Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotionalresponses from people who could not forget GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s prewar imperialgrandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnerednearly 6.5 million votes and became second only to the SocialDemocrats as the most popular party in Germany. In Northeim, where in1928 Nazi candidates had received 123 votes, they now polled 1,742, arespectable 28 percent of the total. The nationwide success drew evenfaster in just three years, party membership would rise from about100,000 to almost a million, and the number of local branches wouldincrease tenfold. The new members included working-class people,farmers, and middle-class professionals. They were both bettereducated and younger then the Old Fighters, who had been the backboneof the party during its first decade. The Nazis now presentedthemselves as the party of the young, the strong, and the pure, inopposition to an establishment populated by the elderly, the weak, andthe dissolute. Hitler was born in a small town in Austria in 1889. Asa young boy, he showed little ambition. After dropping out of highschool, he moved to Vienna to study art, but he was denied the chanceto join Vienna academy of fine arts. When WWI broke out, Hitler joined Kaiser WilhelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s army as aCorporal. He was not a person of great importance. He was a creatureof a Germany created by WWI, and his behavior was shaped by that warand its consequences. He had emerged from Austria with manyprejudices, including a powerful prejudice against Jews. Again, he wasa product of his times for many Austrians and Germans wereprejudiced against the Jews. In Hitlers case the prejudice had become maniacal it was adominant force in his private and political personalities. Anti-Semitism was not a policy for Adolf Hitlerit was religion. Andin the Germany of the 1920s, stunned by defeat, and the ravages of theVersailles treaty, it was not hard for a leader to convince millionsthat one element of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s society was responsible for most ofthe evils heaped upon it. The fact is that HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-Semitism wasself-inflicted obstacle to his political success. The Jews, like otherGermans, were shocked by the discovery that the war had not beenfought to a standstill, as they were led to believe in November 1918,but that Germany had , in fact, been defeated and was to be treated asa vanquished country. Had Hitler not embarked on his policy ofdisestablishing the Jews as Germans, and later of exterminating themin Europe, he could have counted on their loyalty. There is no reasonto believe anything else. On the evening of November 8, 1923, WyukeVavaruab State Cinnussuiber Gustav Rutter von Kahr was making apolitical speech in MunichÃ¢â¬â¢s spra wling B?rgerbr?ukeller, some 600Nazis and right-wing sympathizers surrounded the beer hall. Hitlerburst into the building and leaped onto a table, brandishing arevolver and firing a shot into the ceiling. Ã¢â¬Å"The NationalRevolution,Ã¢â¬ he cried, Ã¢â¬Å"has begun!Ã¢â¬ At that point, informed thatfighting had broken out in another part of the city, Hitler rushed tothat scene. His prisoners were allowed to leave, and they talked aboutorganizing defenses against the Nazi coup. Hitler was of coursefurious. And he was far from finished. At about 11 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock on themorning of November 9the anniversary of the founding of the GermanRepublic in 19193,000 Hitler partisans again gathered outside theB?rgerbr?ukeller. To this day, no one knows who fired the first shot. But a shotrang out, and it was followed by fusillades from both sides. HermannG?ring fell wounded in the thigh and both legs. Hitler flattenedhimself against the pavement; he was unhurt. General Ludenorffcontinued to march stolidly toward the police line, which parted tolet him pass through (he was later arrested, tried and acquitted). Behind him, 16 Nazis and three policemen lay sprawled dead among themany wounded. The next year, R?hm and his band joined forces with thefledgling National Socialist Party in Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Munich Beer HallPutsch. Himmler took part in that uprising, but he played such a minorrole that he escaped arrest. The R?hm-Hitler alliance survived thePutsch, and ?hmÃ¢â¬â¢s 1,500-man band grew into the Sturmabteilung, the SA,HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s brown-shirted private army, that bullied the Communists andDemocrats. Hitler recruited a handful of men to act as his bodyguardsand protect him from Communist toughs, other rivals, and even the S.A. Schizophrenia or Drug abuse? EssayThe Ã¢â¬Å"experimental peopleÃ¢â¬ were also used by Nazi doctors whoneeded practice performing various operations. One doctor at Auschwitzperfected his amputation technique on live prisoners. After he hadfinished, his maimed patients were sent off to the gas chamber. A fewJews who had studied medicine were allowed to live if they assistedthe SS doctors. Ã¢â¬Å"I cut the flesh of healthy young girls,Ã¢â¬ recalled aJewish physician who survived at terrible cost. Ã¢â¬Å"I immersed the bodiesof dwarfs and cripples in calcium chloride (to preserve them), or hadthem boiled so the carefully prepared skeletons might safely reach theThird ReichÃ¢â¬â¢s museums to justify, for future generations, thedestruction of an entire race. I could never erase these memories frommy mind.Ã¢â¬ But the best killing machine were the Ã¢â¬Å"shower bathsÃ¢â¬ of death. After their arrival at a death camp, the Jews who had been chosen todie at once were told that they were to have a shower. Filthy by theirlong, miserable journey, they sometimes applauded the announcement. Countless Jews and other victims went peacefully to the showerroomswhich were gas chambers in disguise. In the anterooms to the gas chambers, many of the doomed peoplefound nothing amiss. At Auschwitz, signs in several languages said,Ã¢â¬Å"Bath and Disinfectant,Ã¢â¬ and inside the chambers other signsadmonished, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget your soap and towel.Ã¢â¬ Unsuspecting victimscooperated willingly. Ã¢â¬Å"They got out of their clothes so routinely,Ã¢â¬ Said a Sobibor survivor. Ã¢â¬Å"What could be more natural?Ã¢â¬ In time, rumors about the death camps spread, and undergroundnewspapers in the Warsaw ghetto even ran reports that told of the gaschambers and the crematoriums. But many people did not believe thestoried, and those who did were helpless in any case. Facing the gunsof the SS guards, they could only hope and pray to survive. As oneJewish leader put it, Ã¢â¬Å"We must be patient and a miracle will occur.Ã¢â¬ There were no miracles. The victims, naked and bewildered, were shovedinto a line. Their guards ordered them forward, and flogged those whohung back. The doors to the gas chambers were locked behind them. Itwas all over quickly. The war came home to Germany. Scarcely had Hitler recovered fromthe shock of the July 20 bombing when he was faced with the loss ofFrance and Belgium and of great conquests in the East. Enemy troops inoverwhelming numbers were converging on the Reich. By the middle ofAugust 1944, the Russian summer offensives, beginning June 10 andunrolling one after another, had brought the Red Army to theborder of East Prussia, bottled up fifty German divisions in theBaltic region, penetrated to Vyborg in Finland, destroyed Army GroupCenter and brought an advance on this front of four hundred miles insix weeks to the Vistula opposite Warsaw, while in the south a newattack which began on August 20 resulted in the conquest of Rumania bythe end of the month and with it the Ploesti oil fields, the onlymajor source of natural oil for the German armies. On August 26Bulgaria formally withdrew from the war and the Germans began tohastily clear out of that country. In September Finland gave up andturned on the German troops which refused to evacuate its territory. In the West, France was liberated quickly. In General Patton, thecommander of the newly formed U.S. Third Army, the Americans had founda tank general with the dash and flair of Rommel in Africa. After thecapture of Avranches on July 30, he had left Brittany to wither on thevine and begun a great sweep around the German armies in Normandy,moving southeast to Orleans on the Loire and then due east toward theSeine south of Paris. By August 23 the Seine was reached southeast andnorthwest of the capital, and two days later the great city, the gloryof France, was liberated after four years of German occupation whenGeneral Jacques LeclercÃ¢â¬â¢s French 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 4thInfantry Division broke into it and found that French resistance unitswere largely in control.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Sailing to Byzantium Essay W. B. Yeats poem Sailing to Byzantium is an allusion to the agony of old age and human mortality, and was written as a part of a collection of poems called Tower. It is in very old verse form which is written as a narrative verse in first person, with four eight line stanzas. It has a rhyming scheme of ABABABCC, or two trios of alternating rhyme followed by one couplet. This rhyming scheme gives the reader the sense that the final two lines of each stanza are the most important, and that the first six are leading up to the conclusion of the stanza. Each line takes the rhythm of iambic pentameter. The tone of the poem provokes a sense of sadness in the reader as it tells of a mans desire to live forever, and how he cant accept that he has grown old and will soon die. This tone is reinforced by the sound of the letter o, heavily used throughout the poem. The poem talks of the mortality of the living, and how the elderly are a reminder of this. The youth are caught up in the moment and do not wish to be reminded that there will come a time when they too will grow old and die. We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Upon this realisation, he decides to travel to the holy city of Byzantium. Byzantium (which was renamed Constantinople, then Istanbul) was a city in the Eastern Roman Empire. The journey to Byzantium is not a literal one, but a metaphorical one which represents the acceptance of mortality, artistic splendour and a way of immortalising oneself through art. Art is an artificial creation, and is something which can stand the test of time and will remain beautiful from the moment it is first created. The use of symbolism and themes are very prevalent in conveying this message of mortality, which leads me to my guiding questions: How does Yeats use language to distinguish the difference between mortality and immortality for the reader? and How does Yeats use symbolism to convey the theme of immortality versus the transience of life? The first stanza presents an image of life to the reader; the birds in the trees, the fish filled waters, the young people who are preoccupied with their lives and loves. But in amongst the description of life Yeats refers to them as those dying generations. This is a reminder that life is inevitably followed by death, and that we are all moving closer to our deaths, or dying. It is a reminder that everything that lives is doomed. Whatever is begotten, born and dies /Caught in that sensual music all neglect /Monuments of unaging intellect. This is a crude summary of the aspects of life that everyone shares (conception, birth and death) and how all living things get caught up with the sensual music, and neglect the monuments of unaging intellect. The final line has a double meaning. The monuments of unaging intellect represents the elderly and how their minds and intelligence do not age with their bodies, but it also represents the artworks and paintings which Yeats destination, Byzantium, is so famous for. The people in paintings, sculptures and other forms of art are undying, and remain the same as they were the day they were first created for eternity. Yeats is condemning the natural as all things natural are doomed to die, and praising the artificial things as they can stand the test of times. This is paradoxical however, because without the natural, the artificial wouldnt exist. In the second stanza, Yeats likens and aged man to a scarecrow: An aged man is but a paltry thing,/A tattered coat upon a stick. This is a symbol of the elderly. Scarecrows are devices which were created to do just as their name describes to scare crows, but in the poem they represent a device which is to scare the youth. Many people fear death, and as the elderly remind the youth of their own mortality, in looking at the aged, they have a sense of fear as they are seeing what they will become. However, this is followed by unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, louder sing/for every tatter in its mortal dress. By using a personification of soul, Yeats reminds the reader that the soul is what separates each life from the next, and that for every problem it comes by, it becomes stronger. In saying this, Yeats is focusing on the fact that it is possible to avoid becoming an empty, lifeless shell, like the scarecrow, by concentrating on the soul, and therefore overcoming the constrictions of the human body. Since the journey to metaphorical one, Yeats is saying that the only way that the journey to Byzantium is possible is to learn to escape from the constraints of the body. Byzantium represents a desired destination, and in Yeats case, it is a symbol of permanence and intransience through art. During a trip to Ravenna, Yeats saw a painting which portrayed martyrs being burnt because of their faith. In the third stanza, in the line O sages standing in Gods holy fire/As in the gold mosaic of a wall, Yeats has incorporated his interpretation of this painting into the poem. He sees the martyrs as sages and the flames as the Holy Spirit. This is represents the transition between life as a mortal and life as an immortal, as at the time of their deaths the sages gained an immortal existence through being incorporated into art. The mosaic is described as gold, as this colour represents an untarnished and everlasting beauty. Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,/And be the singing-masters of my soul. Here, Yeats is referring to a spinning wheel, and the quick movement of thread through a bobbin and spool. This image of each strand of thread being merged into one constant piece symbolises how human life spawns other lives another and how each life links up with another creating a continuous flow of life. Yeats is asking the sages in the mosaic to free him from his body, which he describes as a dying animal, and guide him to Byzantium so that he too can join the artifice of eternity. The sages in the mosaic have seen many generations of people, without ageing themselves. The fourth and final stanza commences with Yeats pronouncing that once he has escaped him human form, he will never again take the form from anything natural, as from his description in the first stanza, these things are all prone to decay and death. He then proceeds to say that he would wish to take the form of a golden bird like the ones the Grecian goldsmiths used to make. He wishes to make the final transition from the transience of human life, and immortalise himself through an ancient form of art. The final line of the poem Of what is past, or passing, or to come is a reflection of the line Whatever is begotten, born and dies found in the first stanza. Yeats categorises time into past, present and future, which is a suggestion that even after escaping his human body, his mind would still be limited to what he can perceive as a human being. The idea of eternity is a concept almost impossible for a human mind to grasp, so we classify time into past, present and future. In answer to my first guiding question, there is a notable difference in the language Yeats uses depending on whether he the idea of mortality or immortality is being conveyed. For example, in the first stanza when the old country is being described, the words are limited to one or two syllables, and the language is rough and has a staccato style rhythm: The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,/Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long. The quick, often monosyllabic words help to enforce the idea that these things will eventually die, and the f and sh sounds are repeated, creating an alliteration which gives a sharper sound to the line. Yeats uses long, more flowing words in line 7, Caught in that sensual music all neglect, as if to admit that he, too, become preoccupied with this aspect of human life. In the final line of the first stanza, the reader is first introduced to the idea of an everlasting existence: Monuments of unageing intellect. This line rolls over the tongue, and is a contrast from line 5 which describes things that will die. It also displays a use of alliteration, as the letter n is echoed throughout the line. More examples language being used to emphasize the difference between transience and an endless existence can be found in the other stanzas: A tattered coat upon a stick and Monuments of its own magnificence: Consume my heart away; sick with desire/And fastened to a dying animal against Into the artifice of eternity. The lines which are referring to immortality have a much more soothing tone, whereas the lines which are referring to mortality are more staccato-like and harsher sounding. In answer to my second guiding question, Yeats use of symbolism is essential in his portrayal of immortality in opposition to mortality. The symbolism begins in the poems title, Sailing to Byzantium. Sailing symbolises a metaphorical journey, and Byzantium symbolises a desired destination, in this case, the desire to become immortal through art. In the first stanza, the images of the young lovers, fish and birds symbolise mortality and eventual death. By highlighting this component of the world he lives in, it makes it easier for the reader to understand his need for permanence. In the second stanza, the scarecrow signifies the elderly. The image of a solitary scarecrow in a field is seen often through literature and film, and in this case the scarecrow represents the neglected generation. The scarecrow is described as paltry (which means contemptible), and this symbolises how the younger generations have contempt for the older generations because they are a reminder of their own mortality. The scarecrow also represents everything that Yeats wishes to leave behind in departing his mortal existence. Finally, the image of the golden bird symbolises the flight Yeats has taken from his previous body, and the permanence he has found through art. The colour gold his also used several times throughout the poem, and this indicates everlasting beauty. Yeats uses images representing young life through to old life to demonstrate the transience of human life, but uses the constant image of the golden mosaics and the golden bird to show how art has a never-ending beauty. In conclusion, I think the main idea W. B. Yeats was trying to convey in writing this poem was that the artificial is superior to the natural, and that while all things natural are doomed to die, the artificial can exist forever. The way Yeats uses imagery helps to convey the idea that the artificial is an everlasting creation, and whereas the natural, while is beautiful at one time, eventually withers and dies. The fact that the author believes the artificial is superior to the natural becomes apparent in difference in language Yeats uses, depending on which of them he is talking about. The abrupt phrases and monosyllabic words Yeats uses to talk about the natural connote that the lives of these things, like the words, are quickly over. However, the more descriptive and flowing language used to describe things which are man-made, such as art, tells the reader that these things are longer lasting and more beautiful. I think that the way in which Yeats tells the poem complements the message he is conveying and causes the reader to contemplate their own existence. Sailing to Byzantium Essay Example Sailing to Byzantium Paper Poetry means many things to people all over the world. Poetry is an outlet or artistic and creative way of telling a story or expressing your emotions. It is something that does not require a lot of skill, but imagination and feeling. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ written by William Butler Yeats is a poem that speaks of the craving for something one cannot have and the immortality of people, art and intellect, and greatness. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem based on the theme longing for something one cannot have. In this case the old man in the poem is yearning to be young and live on forever even when his time is up. To escape death and old age the man sails to Byzantium. Byzantium is the opposite of the old man. Ã¢â¬Å"The young in one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s arms, birds in the treesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The salmon falls, the mackerel crowded seasÃ¢â¬ are lines from the poem that illustrate the youth and vibrance of Byzantium, the youth and viberance the old man desires. Throughout the poem there are lines that hint about the immortality of people and life. One can continue to live on forever spiritually or by being remembered for having a great achievement or a great impact. In the second stanza Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"An aged man is but a paltry thing. We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ã¢â¬ The old man sees age as just a number. His body may be growing older, but his insides are youthful. In the third stanza Yeats writes Ã¢â¬Å"Into the artifice of eternityÃ¢â¬ . This line can translate into on the illusion of immortality. Finally, in the last stanza Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Once out of nature I shall never take my bodily form from any natural thing. Ã¢â¬ Yeats writes that once the old man has passed he will be remembered by a symbol or sculpture much like a royal emperor. He will be represented by any natural thing. In this poem it is important to the old man that he lives on forever in the magnificent paradise of Byzantium. In addition to the immortality of people, the continuous life of art and intellect were written about. In stanza one Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Caught in that sensual music all neglect, moments of unaging intellect. Ã¢â¬ These two lines illustrate the immortality of art and intellect. Though some may neglect the elders because the elderly seem to lose their intellect as they age, the older generations were basically bards of education and intellect. Intellect is something that is passed down from generation to generation, it is something that will live forever. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem largely associated with greatness. Byzantium was a paradise. It consisted of salmon-falls, mackerel-crowded seas, gold mosaic walls, Grecian goldsmiths, and a royal emperor. Byzantium was magnificent, just like the idea of immortality. I think Yeats wrote about Byzantium and immortality together because they go hand in hand. William Butler YeatÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem about greatness and all of its elements. Byzantium was a lively place where it seemed like anything was possible. It was a paradise to escape to. To me Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem of inspiration. The poem seemed to make the idea of dying meager because one can live on forever, even past their time.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
How to Outline a Response Essay on the Rite of Passage This is the third and final guide in the series. If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had a look at our first guide on 10 facts on the rite of passage and the second one on 20 topics on the rite of passage, we highly recommend you read through those first.Ã Reading our complete series in the correct order will substantially assist you in writing a brilliant response essay. Without further ado, here is how to write a response essay on your chosen subject: Writing a book or essay requires professionalism and certain degree of formality in the writing. However, in a response essay, things are a little different. In this essay, what you actually do is review a book or article and discuss your personal perspective on it. It might sound a bit strange at first, but in a response essay you can use phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"I believeÃ¢â¬ , even though it is a formal assessment. Response essays are all about the work you are observing, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a film, book, or artwork of some sort. One essential ingredient to add to this type of essay is your own personal opinion and impressions. Here is what you have to do first before writing a response essay: Visualize the assignment and make an initial comprehension about it Go through it again and contemplate Note down any kind of thoughts or conceptions about your assignment which run through your mind as it will help in writing the essay Form a thesis accordingly Write an outline of your essay and construct it appropriately In the first paragraph, it is necessary to include the title of the object you are responding to and the name of the author and creator who made that object. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"BatmanÃ The Dark Knight Rises by Christopher NolanÃ¢â¬ . Between the first and last sentence, you summarize what you have reviewed on the topic. In the last sentence of your first paragraph, it is compulsory to add a thesis or statement on the particular subject you are writing on. Once you have written a strong introductory paragraph, it is time that you move on to share your opinion with the reader. Even though it might sound strange to include words like Ã¢â¬Å"I feelÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"I thoughtÃ¢â¬ , this is actually how your professor is expecting you to write your response essay. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate to include these kinds of phrases. It is vital for a response paper to have personal opinions on the subject. There are two types of formats you can use to write a response essay: Write an introduction and thesis first, and present a summary in two or three paragraphs. After that, you follow up with the summary by writing your response (agreements and disagreements) on the subject. Finally, you end it with a thoughtful conclusion. Write an introduction and thesis as usual but instead of writing a block of summary, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll merge it with agreements and disagreements, relative to your summarized points. After that, you wrap up your essay with an introspective conclusion. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read all three guides in this series, you should feel very confident in producing a stellar response essay on the Rite of Passage or any other particular subject, with ease.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Marcus Cocceius Nerva, First of Rome's Good Emperors Marcus Cocceius Nerva (November 8, 30 CEÃ¢â¬âJanuary 27, 98 CE) ruled Rome as emperor from 96Ã¢â¬â98 CE following the assassination of the much-hated Emperor Domitian. Nerva was the first of the five good emperors and was the first to adopt an heir who wasnt part of his biological family. Nerva had been a friend of the Flavians without children of his own. He built aqueducts, worked on the transport system, and built granaries to improve the food supply. Fast Facts: Marcus Cocceius Nerva Known For: Well-regarded and respected Roman emperorAlso Known As: Nerva, Nerva Caesar AugustusBorn: November 8, 30 CE in Narnia, Umbria part of the Roman EmpireParents: Marcus Cocceius Nerva and Sergia PlautillaDied: January 27, 98 CE at the Gardens of Sallust, RomePublished Works: Lyric poetryAwards and Honors:Ã Ornamenta Triumphalia for military serviceSpouse: NoneChildren: Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany (adopted)Notable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"I have done nothing that would prevent me laying down the imperial office and returning to private life in safety.Ã¢â¬ Early Life Nerva was born November 8, 30 CE, in Narnia, Umbria, north of Rome. He came from a long line of Roman aristocrats: his great-grandfather M. Cocceius Nerva was consul in 36 CE, his grandfather was a well-known consul and friend of Emperor Tiberius, his mothers aunt was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius, and his great uncle was a negotiator for the emperor Octavian. While little is known of Nervas education or childhood, he did not become a military professional. He was, however, well known for his poetic writings. Early Career Nerva, following in his familys footsteps, pursued a political career. He became praetor-elect in 65 CE and became an advisor to Emperor Nero. He discovered and exposed a plot against Nero (the Pisonian conspiracy); his work on this issue was so significant that he received military triumphal honors (though not a member of the military). In addition, statues of his likeness were placed in the palace. Neros suicide in 68 led to a year of chaos sometimes called the Year of Four Emperors. In 69, as a result of unknown services rendered, Nerva became a consul under Emperor Vespasian. Though there are no records to support the assumption, it seems likely that Nerva continued as consul under Vespasians sons Titus and Domitian until the year 89 CE. Nerva as Emperor Domitian, as a result of conspiracies against him, had become a harsh and vengeful leader. On September 18, 96, he was assassinated in a palace conspiracy. Some historians speculate that Nerva may have been involved in the conspiracy. At the very least, it seems likely that he was aware of it. On the same day, the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor. When appointed, Nerva was already well into his sixties and had health issues, so it was unlikely he would rule for long. In addition, he had no children, which raised questions about his successor; it may be that he was selected specifically because he would be able to handpick the next Roman emperor. The initial months of Nervas leadership focused on redressing Domitians wrongs. Statues of the former emperor were destroyed, and Nerva granted amnesty to many whom Domitian had exiled. Following tradition, he executed no senators but did, according to Cassius Dio, Ã¢â¬Å"put to death all the slaves and freedmen who conspired against their masters.Ã¢â¬ While many were satisfied with Nervas approach, the military remained loyal to Domitian, in part because of his generous pay. Members of the Praetorian Guard rebelled against Nerva, imprisoning him in the palace and demanding the release of Petronius and Parthenius, two of Domitians assassins. Nerva actually offered his own neck in exchange for those of the prisoners, but the military refused. Finally, the assassins were captured and executed, while Nerva was released. While Nerva retained power, his confidence was shaken. He spent much of the remainder of his 16-month reign attempting to stabilize the empire and ensure his own succession. Among his achievements were the dedication of a new forum, repairing roads, aqueducts, and the Colosseum, allotting land to the poor, reducing taxes imposed on Jews, instituting new laws limiting public games, and exercising greater oversight over the budget. Succession There is no record that Nerva married, and he had no biological children. His solution was to adopt a son, and he selected Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Trajan, the governor of Upper Germany. The adoption, which took place in October of 97, allowed Nerva to placate the army by selecting a military commander as his heir; at the same time, it allowed him to consolidate his leadership and take control of the provinces in the north. Trajan was the first of many adopted heirs, many of whom served Rome extremely well. In fact, Trajans own leadership is sometimes described as a golden age. Death Nerva had a stroke in January 98, and three weeks later he died. Trajan, his successor, had Nervas ashes put in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the Senate to deify him. Legacy Nerva was the first of five emperors who oversaw the best days of the Roman Empire, as his leadership set the stage for this period of Roman glory. The other four good emperors were Trajan (98Ã¢â¬â117), Hadrian (117Ã¢â¬â138), Antoninus Pius (138Ã¢â¬â161), and Marcus Aurelius (161Ã¢â¬â180). Each of these emperors hand-selected his successor through adoption. During this period, the Roman Empire expanded to include the north of Britain as well as portions of Arabia and Mesopotamia. Roman civilization was at its height and a consistent form of government and culture expanded across the entire empire. At the same time, however, the government became increasingly centralized; while there were benefits to this approach, it also made Rome more vulnerable in the long run. Sources Dio, Cassius. Roman History by Cassius Dio published in Vol.Ã VIII of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1925.The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ã¢â¬Å"Nerva.Ã¢â¬ EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica.Ã¯ » ¿Wend, David. Nerva. An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Independent - Research Proposal Example This essay highlights that the major motivations in carrying out the research stems from my interest in marketing and various strategies that organisations use in ensuring success. For instance, the main strategies used by the KFC includes offering competitive prices, developing quality and diverse products, and ensuring that the products are in convenient locations where the target markets can easily access. The study will help in exploring the development strategies of the KFC and comparing it with other international restaurants such as the McDonalds. Therefore, if problems are detected in the strategies, areas of weakness will be identified and recommendations will be made.This paper declares thatÃ using of scientific methods is essential in providing an organised structure for making theories as well as solving problems. On the same note, it minimises bias and shows the proper steps that ought to be taken in order to reach a conclusion. In addition, a research design is the ov erall strategy that is used in integrating the research components in a logical and sound manner to fully address the problem.Ã The research proposal will employ a mixed methodology of both qualitative and quantitative analysis in which there will be an understanding on the existing development strategies and analyse the issue of localisation of KFC in China.Ã The proposal will also employ both an action and historical research design. The action research design helps in understanding the issues and coming up with intervention strategies.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Gosling & Mintzberg's The Five Minds of a Manager - Article Example To succeed, therefore, as a manger, one must have different mindsets at different times. Jonathan Glossing and Henry Mintzberg analyses these as the five minds of a manger. In doing this, they discuss the five most important roles that mangers do and the challenges they face in doing so. Managing self is the first of these; before managing a group of grown adults, one must manage himself. In doing these, such aspects of personality as grooming and punctuality among others are considered. One cannot purport to manage others while they portray signs of negligence at the workplace. Managers must therefore be very organized and orderly people. These are prerequisite to the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. A dedicated and effectively self managed individual motivates his workforces who thereafter emulate his progress. Self discipline and restrain elevates a manager from the rest of the pack at the organization. It makes the manager authoritative and develops an air of self worth around him. It is only after ensuring this that a manager begins the process of managing the individual personality at his disposal which he does in accordance to how he manages himself (Jonathan and Henry 3). Managing organizations is the second mindset. An organization refers to a group of people brought together to achieve a common objective. A manager must weigh the task and put it in comparison to the human resource and other resources at his disposal necessary for the completion of the task. The manager is in charge of the task and he is responsible for the outcome. He must therefore ensure that he employs the best minds and competencies for the task to guarantee a positive outcome. The process of determining the best mindset requires skills and experience which a manager is required to posses. The third mindset that managers must acquire is to manage context. Organizations exist in societies; it is therefore natural that more
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Carseat Safety Essay Every achievement in your childÃ¢â¬â¢s life is thrilling! First steps, first words, and even the first day of school (minus the tears). Even car seat milestones can seem exciting. The reality is, they should be looked at with a certain sense of fear, not desire. Every step in a car seat Ã¢â¬Å"progressionÃ¢â¬ is actually a step down in your childÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. Rear facing is much, much safer than forward facing. There are many articles that discuss the reasons why your children should remain rear facing for the first full year and 20 pounds. Many of these same articles discuss that consequences of injury drop dramatically after the first year of life. However, it does not state that there are no consequences. The consequences may no longer be death from a completely severed spinal cord, but simply life-long injury, including complete paralysis. Research studies suggest that until children are at least four years of age, they are helpless in withstanding crash forces as well as adults; henceforth they should remain rear facing. In a crash, severe or deadly injuries are generally limited to the head and neck, in the case of a child being in a harnessed seat. When a child is in a forward facing seat, there is an incredible amount of stress put on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s neck, which must hold the large head back. A small childÃ¢â¬â¢s neck upholds great amounts of force in a crash. The straps hold the body back while the head is thrown forward, which can break the spinal cord. Also, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s head is at a greater risk in a forward facing seat as well. In a crash, the head is thrown outside the confines of the seat and can make dangerous contact with other passengers or intruding objects. Rear facing seats do a extraordinary job of protecting children simply because there is little to no force applied to the head, neck, and spine. When a child is in a rear facing seat, the head, neck and spine are all kept fully aligned and the child is allowed to ride down the crash while the back of the child seat absorbs the bulk of the crash force. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s head is contained within the seat, and the child is must less likely to come into contact with anything that might cause head injury.