Wednesday, July 31, 2019
There exists an achievement gap among wealthy and lower socio economic communities. Students who come from schools within lower socioeconomic communities do not often receive the same education or services from wealthier districts. New Jersey has responded to this inequitable situation with the Abbot funding process. Recently two local communities, Long Branch and Neptune, have been threatened with the loss of their Abbott status; as a result of additional mandates from the federal No Child Left Behind Act, many such schools are being threatened with the loss of their funding if they fail to meet minimum academic achievement standards. To determine the impact of this potential loss, this paper will provide insights into local concerns in Long Branch to identify how this loss would affect the academic achievement gap. This discussion will be followed by a report on two areas where it is believed equity will be lost to the district. In their Abbott vs. Burke decision, the New Jersey Supreme Court mandated additional assistance for the state's 30 poorest districts, including Long Branch and Neptune (Quinn, 2003). According to an Asbury Park Press survey of enrollment data for Monmouth County found that minorities comprise the majority of the school population in Asbury Park, Red Bank, Neptune, Freehold, Long Branch and Lakewood; of these, the survey found that only Red Bank's poverty rate does not exceed the state's rate (Quinn, 2003). Furthermore, fully 20 percent of the Hispanic students in Monmouth County attend the Long Branch school system (Quinn, 2003). If the additional funding promised by the Abbott decision is halted or reduced, all of the low-income communities will undoubtedly experience further declines in the academic performance levels that are already precipitously low in many cases, with the thrust of this reduction in funding creating two fundamental problems: 1) adversely affect literary rates; and 2) further exacerbate the segregation of low-income and minority citizens into pockets of poverty. As to the first issue, Strickland and Alvermann (2004) reviewed the issues concerning the achievement gap in the U. S. and found that literacy demands of the middle grades are exacerbated when the students come from low income and minority homes; in particular, these issues assumed critical levels when the students are members of low-income and minority families. These students are already likely to attend schools characterized by high mobility rates, inadequate resources and facilities, and large numbers of young students with challenging learning needs (Strickland & Alvermann, 2004). Comparable trends are also apparent in the State of New Jersey as well. According to Lattimer and Strickland (2004), the results from the Grade Eight Proficiency Assessment (GEPA) from 2000-2002 identified consistent differences in partially proficient, proficient, and advanced proficient between District Factor Groups (DFG's) and race/ethnicity. In addition, the differences in academic achievement between special needs districts such as Long Branch and non-special needs districts found similar trends to the 2002 GEPA (Lattimer & Strickland, 2004). In fact, a 35-percentage point difference existed in the total number of students scoring proficient and advanced proficient in Language Arts Literacy in 2002; the authors point out that the District Factor Group is an indicator of the socioeconomic status of citizens in each district and has been useful for the comparative reporting of test results from New Jersey's statewide testing programs in the past (Lattimer & Strickland, 2004). Concerning the second issue of further segregating low-income and minority citizens into Ã¢â¬Å"pockets of poverty,Ã¢â¬ the school superintendent for Long Branch reported that although minorities tend to live in segregated communities, this was the result of a Ã¢â¬Å"social trendÃ¢â¬ rather than segregation; notwithstanding these assertions, though, these high concentration of low-income minority members in their own communities has created Ã¢â¬Å"haveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"have-notÃ¢â¬ districts, with the Long Branch district representing one of the hardest-hit in the state (Quinn, 2003). Clearly, if the Abbott funding is halted, parents will be faced with a dual-edged dilemma of being unable to provide their children with an adequate education by virtue of substandard schools while being forced to remain in these low-income districts out of sheer necessity. The people of New Jersey in general and the citizens of these low-income regions deserve the quality education that is their American birthright; unfortunately, the promise has not lived up to its legacy in many of these cities, and Long Branch continues to be threatened with even more academic and social miseries if its Abbott funding is stopped.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Assessment 3: Final Essay Question What is the relationship between technology, science and the visual? Analyse a text of your choice (Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon) in a way that demonstrates your understanding of the connections between bodies, technologies and visual reproduction. Josephine Polutea, Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon (2011) The relationship between technology, science and the visual I believe is that they all interconnect with each other. The technological invention of the lithographic device for example enabled numerous visual reproductions for magazines and newspapers. This then opened up the door to the revolutionary technological shift in visual reproduction from lithography to photography that enabled replications to cater for the masses. This ability to produce multiple copies of any one image came about with the revolutionary development of the Ã¢â¬ËnegativeÃ¢â¬â¢. (Lecture 5 / Technologies of the Visual Reproduction, 2011) This is evident in the movie Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon where the use of the images and footage from the Apollo 11, Lunar Landing are used to encapsulate the viewer to identify and empathise with the historical event that is used as a Ã¢â¬Å"spectacleÃ¢â¬ in the movie. Science wise this was a breakthrough in all history of mankind although there is speculation and scepticism that the event in fact never took place (Lecture 5 / Visuality, History, Event Spectacle, 2011) in an effort to gain capital for funding of the NASA space program approximately estimated at thirty billion dollars. (Lecture 14 / Visuality, History, Event Spectacle, 2011). On the contrary this is problematic in any evidence documented in history for history although makes for a good story line in a movie about technology, science and the Ã¢â¬Å"bodiesÃ¢â¬ involved in this visual reproduction of the Ã¢â¬Å"historical eventÃ¢â¬ . As this event spectacle was used in the movie as the basis of the visual narrative which was what I gathered to be that the American government discovered an unidentified object that crashed on the moonÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and the Presidents reaction to send the astronauts to the moon as he quotes in the movie Ã¢â¬Å"You get there before the RussiansÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Well you tell NASA to move heaven and earth. Ã¢â¬ Gives the impression that Mr President is very patriotic and based on Ã¢â¬Å"actions speak louder than wordsÃ¢â¬ ? There is a sense of urgency where one would assume that there was a conspiracy to cover up a Ã¢â¬Å"top secret missionÃ¢â¬ to discover if there really were any alien life forms present on the moon or to cover up discoveries of such encounters. A reason of state would account for the manipulation of such evidence to enforce the protecting public morality, educating the population, looking after national interests and promoting community values. (Schirato, Webb 2007, p 174). The news mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to report the facts clearly, with as much accuracy as possible. Unfortunately this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. Science and reason are a good arsenal to have in the battle against pseudoscience, but in most cases they take a back seat to history and tradition. Plait (2002) These technological experiments and discoveries speak from the investigations of science and other certain unexplained issues for example extra-terrestrial, the supernatural or the unexplained Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ unidentified flying objects or mechanical beings. The images of an Ã¢â¬Å"alienÃ¢â¬ life form are visual reproduction of a circulated urban myth Ã¢â¬Ëso to speakÃ¢â¬â¢ rather there are no actual scientific evidentiary to substantiate claims from victims of the so called alien abductions or alien encounters. The descriptions given are used to form this visual that an alien has a big coned head, with big black oddly shaped eyes, a mouth and no nose but seem to be smaller in height then an average person. The greatest influence over visual practices in the contemporary Western world are what we call normalisation, which is associated with the fields of science, bureaucracy and government, and capitalism. (Schirato and Webb 2004) So why is it, that in the movies they look familiarly tall and strong and awfully unattractive? Or those in Transformers that are referred to as aliens? The Ã¢â¬Å"otherÃ¢â¬ bodies I will refer to the Ã¢â¬Ëtransforming robotsÃ¢â¬â¢ in the movie Transformers and the government Ã¢â¬Å"bodiesÃ¢â¬ that are directly involved in this highly classified special operations task and the power role they play in the movie. According to Schirato and Webb (2004) scientific categories of truth and reality are circulated throughout popular culture, particularly in the media. This is the main reason why we have used the term Ã¢â¬Å"normalisingÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢ to designate this particular visual regime. The movie begins with the notion of a race soon to be extinct by war. In an opening statement that says, Ã¢â¬Å"We were once a peaceful race of intelligent mechanical beings, but then came the war. Ã¢â¬ A war between the Autobots and Dicepticons on their planet called Ã¢â¬ËCybertronÃ¢â¬â¢. This Ã¢â¬Ëmechanical beingÃ¢â¬â¢ or what post-modernist film directors would call Ã¢â¬Å"aliensÃ¢â¬ freely roam the universe and eventually take refuge on planet Earth. This concept of machine life and human life co-existing and living in harmony is reinforced in the movie as a political opportunism point of view. For instance their alliance with the autobots to serve and protect America and the world from breach of national and international security. Optimus Prime quotes Ã¢â¬Å"In a year since our arrival, our new Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ Earth has seen much change. EnergonÃ¢â¬â¢ detectors guard its cities now. Long range defense systems watch the skies. So now we assist our allies in solving human conflicts, to prevent mankind bringing harm to itselfÃ¢â¬ . The normalisation of scientific revolution and bureaucratic power only serves a purpose that politically we as a society, a community we donÃ¢â¬â¢t really have a say in what happens but only that we are shaped and influen ced to conform to what we should be expected to behave, believe or feel towards a certain situation. This brings to surface the subjectivity that we are familiar with in our everyday lives. For example if we are pulled over by a policeman for a random breath test or for surpassing the speed limit we autonomously adjust our attitudes and stature to address the officer because we know that the Ã¢â¬ËbodyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢ serves a purpose to the law and its people and therefore the power relationship is automatically referenced to the officer. This power relationship between the bureaucracy and the people is displayed in the movie when Sam is attacked by laser beak, a side kick of Megatron and escapes in his efforts to assist the autobots before the decepticons take over the world. He is confronted by Director of National Intelligence Miriam who questions Coronel Lenick. Ã¢â¬Å" I know his name, I wanna know who gave him clearance? Ã¢â¬ and later argues Ã¢â¬Å"we cannot entrust national security to teenagers unless I missed the policy papers, are we doing that? I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think soÃ¢â¬ . As Schriato and Webb explains (2004) when a soldier saw something that signified a superior officer (a particular uniform, stripes), he was required to behave, quite automatically, in a submissive manner. Similarly, the idea was that when the population saw signs of stateÃ¢â¬â¢s authority (buildings, functionaries in uniforms, titles, letter-heads) they would see, without questioning or hesitation, something that was greater, more powerful and more knowledgeable than themselves, and adjust their behaviour to comply with these manifest signs of the state. In the movie these signs are visible especially in reference to the government bodies, President and the Pentagon Ã¢â¬â Bureaucratic and Political Division, NASA Ã¢â¬â Science Division, and the National Security Intelligence Ã¢â¬â Defence Division & Department of Health & Human Services which is signified as a body that serves a purpose to the people although take authority from the government, science, and defence divisions. As global cultural flow of images are circulated through the public media sphere and as such the Lunar Landing were celebrated through the United States and the world as a great historical accomplishment. We are conformed to believe this is true because we generally believe that Ã¢â¬Å"seeing is believingÃ¢â¬ and that the images provided we take as Ã¢â¬Ëphotographic truthÃ¢â¬â¢. The mechanical nature of image-producing systems such as photography and film, and the electronic nature of image-making systems such as television, computer graphics, and digital images, bear the legacy of Ã¢â¬ËpositivistÃ¢â¬â¢ concepts of science (Lecture 6 / Technologies of Visual Reproduction, 2001). Plait (2004) states that people confuse the far side with the dark side. You almost never hear the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"far side of the moonÃ¢â¬ . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always Ã¢â¬Å"dark side of the moonÃ¢â¬ . This phrase isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really wrong but it is inaccurate. If movies were the only purveyors of scientific inaccuracies, there would hardly be a problem. After all itÃ¢â¬â¢s their job to peddle fantasy. In conclusion the connections between science and technology is a relationship between the global media sphere and the reason of state that governs all scientific, bureaucratic, political and capitalist fields that form and shape our views of how we perceive the world we live in. Therefore my understanding is that science and technology have a strong relationship in the realm of the Ã¢â¬Ëvisual regimesÃ¢â¬â¢ and there connections to our world views of government Ã¢â¬ËbodiesÃ¢â¬â¢, scientific technologies and the shift in technological visual reproductions. The reference list Plait, P C 2004, Bad Astronomy Misconceptions and Misuse Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing Ã¢â¬Å"HoaxÃ¢â¬ John Wiley & Sons Inc. , New York. Schirato, T & Webb, J 2004, Reading the Visual, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest. CLT120, Vision, Visuality and Everyday Life, Lecture 5 Ã¢â¬â Technologies of the Visual Reproduction, Macquarie University, 2011. CLT120, Vision, Visuality and Everyday Life, Lecture 6 Ã¢â¬â The Myth of the Photographic Real, Macquarie University, 2011. CLT120, Vision, Visuality and Everyday Life, Lecture 14 Ã¢â¬â Visuality, History, Event Spectacle, Macquarie University, 2011
In the film Juno directed by Jason Reitmen the relationship between the main character Juno, and Mark is very important. This relationship helps the viewer learn more about JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to motherhood and in each scene we are shown her development to maturity. JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Mark influences the story line and helps the viewer understand JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s character and why Juno makes many of her decisions. The decision she faces is that of a pregnant 16 year old. The way she views her friend, Mark, develops and changes as she matures on her journey to motherhood. From the beginning of the film Juno has a clear picture of the perfect parent for her child. Mark fits what she is looking for ideally. He is a fun and relaxed man. He is into the same music as Juno, plays guitar and has terrific taste in horror films. When Juno is looking though the penny saver for adoptive parents she says Ã¢â¬Å" I just canÃ¢â¬â¢t give my baby to someone who describes themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"wholesome.Ã¢â¬ I am looking for something a little edgier.Ã¢â¬ This is when she sees Mark and Vanessa LorringÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisement, which is exactly what Juno, is looking for. When first visiting the LorringÃ¢â¬â¢s Juno and Mark play on his guitars, instantly bonding. Right from the start Mark is JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred parent. I learnt through this that at the start of her pregnancy Juno has an innocent idea of parenting. Juno and MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship deepens as time goes on. From the first time Juno meets Mark she shows an immense interest in him as a Father. She starts finding excuses to go around and see him, dropping in for the slightest reason. As their relationship grows they start watching movies together, ringing each other and recommending songs. At this stage she is firmly of the view that Mark would make a perfect Father for her baby. When talking about Mark Juno says, Ã¢â¬Å"It was cool, he is kind of cool.Ã¢â¬ At this point the audience may be questioning why a man that much older than Juno has so much in common with her, and questioning if JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s views on Mark are realistic as Bren does. The reactions and comments of other characters help Juno to consider her opinions in a different light. When Juno arrives home from MarkÃ¢â¬â¢s late at night Brenda is concerned about Juno. Ã¢â¬Å"That was a mistake Juno. Mark is a married stranger. You over stepped a boundary.Ã¢â¬ At first Juno is upset and annoyed about Brenda telling her off and treating her like a child. She reacts like a typical teenager, not seeing what the audience is already questioning, that spending time with Mark is inappropriate. Brenda is acting like a caring and mature parent, which contrasts with how Juno is behaving. As the movie progresses and Juno gets to know Mark better she realizes that Vanessa may be the stronger parent. From the beginning Juno shows a great interest in Mark and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay much attention to Vanessa. When Juno sees Vanessa at the mall playing with a little kid, she realizes how great a Mother she would make. The scene shows Vanessa in a high angle wide shot running around with a young child who is completely engrossed and captivated by VanessaÃ¢â¬â¢s company. We then see a close up on JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s face, the director uses this close up to highlight that Juno is fixated on Vanessa with an expression of awe and happiness, at the realization that Vanessa is going to make a wonderful Mother. Because of her love for children, you can see this by her interaction. JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s shift in judgment also affects her view on Mark as the attributes she values in a parent start to mature. Juno begins to realize that Mark may not be the ideal Father for her baby. When visiting Mark, they hang out in his room. The room is full of props such as unpacked boxes symbolizing Mark being unsettled and boxed in. Juno and Mark danced together with song lyrics in the background Ã¢â¬Å"all these young dudesÃ¢â¬ inferring that Mark still hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t grown up. While dancing we see a mid shot, JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s tummy is touching Mark and he comments Ã¢â¬Å"somethingÃ¢â¬â¢s between usÃ¢â¬ . Although there is a baby physically between them he is also suggesting there is chemistry and attraction between them. This is when Mark tells Juno he is leaving Vanessa. Juno is furious and this is a turning point in the film as Juno realizes Mark needs to grow up and is too immature to father her child. This is when Juno realizes that Vanessa is certainly going to make a better and reliable parent for her child. I learnt that through her pregnancy she becomes more mature and she begins thinking of her babyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs rather than her own. JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Mark reflects her maturation from a naive teenager to a responsible Mother. When Juno first becomes pregnant she is looking for a fun relaxed parent. Initially she was impressed by Mark and enjoyed his company. However she was more focused on what she wanted for herself rather than the well being of her baby. As Juno spends more time with Mark we learn his strengths and weaknesses. Juno matures as a person and realizes Mark wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be responsible or grown up enough to make a stable Father. When Juno starts realizing this she starts seeing all the positive traits in Vanessa from a maternal perspective. JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s development as a person mirrors her physical development in her pregnancy. This is shown in the movie when Juno makes a selfless decision purely for the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare and chooses the right parent to bring up her child, while she is in the advanced stages of her pregnancy. In conclusion JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Mark changes throughout the film. Those changes reflect the reactions and influences of other characters, & JunoÃ¢â¬â¢s personal growth. As Juno progresses to Motherhood her opinions mature and slowly become selfless. By the end of film she realizes who she wants to see bring up her child.
Monday, July 29, 2019
The American Mideast Leadership Network - Essay Example George W. Bush, in his second inaugural address, stressed that "it is the policy of the United States to seek and support the growth of democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world" (qtd. in Lowenkron, 2006: np). While these policies may sound familiar, almost boilerplate in some respects, it is the increasing interest in and overt support of many non-governmental organizations that merits attention. For instance, in his remarks to the American Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Barry F. Lowenkron, the Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, stated, regarding President Bush's desire to end tyranny in the world, that "The work of NGOs is crucial to reaching that goal" (Lowenkron, 2006: np). It is this nuance, the interposition of non-governmental organizations, that indicates a growing trend in international relations. ... s; for example, they report and publicize facts otherwise not known about civil societies, they lobby and protest, and they sponsor educational conferences and debates. Non-governmental organizations deal with health issues, environmental concerns, education, humanitarian relief operations, and the protection of fundamental rights and liberties. They are, in short, free of many of the constraints faced by state actors and increasingly well-funded and supported. This trend, from a western perspective, has been emphasized by one leading scholar in the field: NGOs in this context appear as missionaries of the good word about the marriage of convenience between the free market and democratic elections, and the virtues of social democratic action in the spaces available within the power structure as opposed to direct action against it. In this context, the NGOs are enlisted by official development agencies (ODAs) and governments as partners in the process of "sustainable human development" and "good [democratic] governance"-as watchdogs of state deviancy, as interlocutors and participants in the formulation of public policy, and guarantors of its transparency to inhibit or prevent corruption and rentierism (Veltmeyer, 2005: 90). In the final analysis, non-governmental organizations are increasingly thought to be able to accomplish goals traditionally associated with more traditional state and multinational actors. One example of a non-governmental organization doing such work is the American Mideast Leadership Network. American Mideast Leadership Network Incorporated as a section 501(c)(3) non-profit organization under the Internal Revenue Code, the American Mideast Leadership Network is dedicated to the creation of educational and cultural exchanges (American
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Assignment - Essay Example Where is it at this time? Plan: Remember that gravity is acting against the ball, so the acceleration a = -g = - (constant of gravity near EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface) = - 9.8 m/s2. Due to gravity, at some point the ball is going to stop (v=0 at the maximum height that the ball reaches) and start to fall back down. We will use +y direction as the up direction. 2b.Next, from the same position, you throw an identical ball (Ball 2) straight down with the same launch speed as in the previous question. How fast will the ball be traveling 2 seconds later and where is it at this time? Ã The reason for this is that ball 1 reaches its maximum height, then falls back down. When it crosses the point where the platform is, it has the same speed it initially had when thrown up, only now it is going downwards with the same speed. Proof of this: Take ball 1, and find the final speed it would have if the final y value is the same as the initial y value (so that the ball is released from the platform, goes up, and comes right back to the platform). Use the equation vf2 = v02 -2g(yf-y0); the initial and final y values are the same, so their difference is 0 and we have vf2 = v02 -2g(0)= v02 Ã¯Æ' ¨ in other words, vf and v0 have the same magnitudes, but different directions: vf = -v0 3.The ceiling of a classroom is 3.75 m above the floor. A student tosses an apple vertically upward, releasing it 0.5 m above the floor. What is the maximum initial speed that can be given to the apple if it is not to touch the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
To what extent does Twitter's mission statement reflect its usage - Literature review Example The organisation claims it to be Ã¢â¬Ëthe fastest, simplest way to stay close to everything you careÃ¢â¬â¢ (Twitter, 2012). Twitter is based upon the four fundamentals, namely, Microblogging, Social Networking, Social Media and Computer-Mediated Communication. In recent times, the importance of social networking and media has been noticed largely among the youth generation. Not only have the young people, but also companies in modern days, use social networks to transfer information among the people who are by large the users of these social media. The organisations have been using a tool named microblogging which can be stated as the process of posting smaller digital contents such as, pictures, short videos, links and other media contents in the internet. Although, there are many social networking sites, Facebook has been another social media which have recently gained huge popularity, in comparison to Twitter. The difference between Twitter and Facebook is the class of users, i.e. while Twitter is generally used by most of the celebrities and dignitaries; Facebook is used by all the classes of the society. Micro-blogging According to Java & et. al. (n.d.), Twitter is currently the most accepted microblogging stage which enables users to update their current statuses through short message services (SMSs), digital photos or short videos. In other words, an online community is formed by inviting friends and colleagues who share information of their recent happenings through short texts or audio-visual clips. Furthermore, it can be stated that microblogging in recent times has become an extremely famous media for both personal and professional recreation. Friends use it to keep in touch, professionals use it to co-ordinate business meetings and share important resources; similarly, celebrities and political dignitaries use it for gaining publicity by posting comments regarding their tour schedules, concert presences and film releases (Java & et. al., n.d.). According to a publication of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (2009), it has been observed that the term microblogging has developed additional terms such as microsharing and activity streaming which are being used commonly by recent users. It has also been noted that Twitter is being used at a higher degree for micro-blogging in comparison to other accessible social networking sites; although, many people have complained about its reliability and functionality (17th European Conference on Information Systems, 2009). As stated by Ehrlich & Shami (2010), posts or Ã¢â¬ËtweetsÃ¢â¬â¢ can be viewed by anyone who is following the person or even attempts to view the public profiles. Furthermore, the authors state that the concept of Ã¢â¬ËfollowingÃ¢â¬â¢ is very different from Ã¢â¬ËfriendingÃ¢â¬â¢ as in social networks consent from both the parties are required to share and view other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Whereas in the case of Twitter, consent is not necessary and a person can automatically follow other person according to their likes and tastes. Thus, it can be stated that the popularity of Twitter has grown rapidly due to its unique qualities (Ehrlich & Shami, 2010). In this respect, Ebner & Schiefner (2008) observed that the success of microblogging or Ã¢â¬ËweblogsÃ¢â¬â¢, shortly called as blogs are due to the three factors;
Friday, July 26, 2019
Marketing Management Concepts - Essay Example Alternative Management Channel Techniques. One of the alternative channel management technique that People's Bank can employ is the traditional brick and mortar model where they set up their buildings to support business transactions with customers (Murphy 2003). Also, they can likewise complement their online presence with brick and mortar product distribution. This is to capture markets which do not have access to the internet. People's Bank and the Societal Marketing Technique. The societal marketing concept firmly holds that "the organisation's task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors, in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer's and the society's well-being (Kotler 1994)." We can see that as People's bank utilize the best technology available and apply it to their business sector, efficiency is increased not only on the part of the customer but also to the business. However, there are some setbacks like high expenses due to high cost of energy. It can be noted that the skyrocketing costs of fuel in the world and domestic market will spill over as high energy consumption for consumers using this technology. Impact of Technology on Business.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Position paper 7 see below - Essay Example The action to be taken should be determined by a court of law. Killing without trial is only allowed in incidences self-defense or as a necessity to save more lives. That said target killing of terrorists, in my opinion, is an immediate necessity executed with the aim of saving more lives. Therefore, the United States should be allowed to continue killing terrorist based on their intelligence. The benefit of targeted killing is that, unlike an arrest operation, there are fewer risks. For example, in U.S, targeted killing are mostly executed using an automated drone craft. According to BeckerÃ andÃ Shane (2012), among the counterterrorism tactic applicable, targeted killing has proved to be the most effective in the prevention of terror attacks. A targeted killing meant to kill a leader of a terrorist organization disrupts terrorist organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s plans to a point of collapsing. For example, killing the Gaza military commander, Salah Shehadeh, prevented six terror attacks he planned to execute in Israel. Base on the outcome of targeted killing ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s regime has embraced the tactic as the most effective approach to eradication Al-Qaeda and Taliban members Afghanistan-Pakistan border. However, United States need make targeted killing acceptable in other countries by justifying the tactic. For instance, United States should not engage enforcement operations in a foreign country without their knowledge. Doing so is a violation of peaceful relations and international norms (Taylor, 2013). The government should come up with a set of norms that support targeted killing but upholds and acknowledge the principles of peace. Additionally, the collateral damage that comes with targeted killing need to be considered. Regardless the fear of an attack plot advancing following delays to counterattack, consideration should be given to damage expected. The government need to form policies that validate all operations
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
ICT AND CUSTOMER SERVICE - Dissertation Example Analysis is given on the survey and comparisons made between survey findings and literature review. ICT is now an integral part of much of our lives and even when we go on vacation or on business trips too. Search terms: Hotel Customer Satisfaction (Amazon); hotel management systems; research studies on hotel ICT; ICT effects on hotel service; ICT and hotel service; hospitality and tourism research papers on ICT Table of Contents Acknowledgements 2 Abstract 3 Table of Contents 4 Section 1: Introduction 6 1.1 Introduction to the Research 6 1.2 Purpose 7 1.3 Statement of Objective 7 1.4 Research Question 7 1.5 Justification 7 1.6 Strategy 8 1.7 Limitations 8 Section 2: Literature Review 9 2.1 Introduction 9 2.2 Using Technology (ICT, PMS and CRM) 10 2.3 Experiential Marketing and ICT 12 2.4 Social Media and Applications (Apps) 13 2.5 Marketing with ICT Tools 14 2.6 Employee Motivation 15 2.7 Employee Rewards 17 2.8 Ideal Management 18 2.9 Impact of ICT on the Workforce 19 2.10 Front De sk Employees 20 2.11 Housekeeping and Food Services 21 2.12 Total Quality Management (TQM) 22 Section 3: Methodology 23 3.1 Introduction 23 3.2 The Journals and Books Process 23 3.3 The Online Survey and Questionnaire 24 3.4 The Overall Research Strategy 25 Section 4: Results and Findings 26 4.1 Introduction 26 4.2 Descriptive Information 26 4.3 Overtime Hours 27 4.4 Hotel Positions 27 4.5 Education Levels and Income 28 4.6 Experiential versus Experience on the Job 28 4.7 Training on the Job and for the Job 29 4.8 Decision Making Capabilities and Management Supervision 30 4.9 Management Supervision and Approval 31 4.10 Marketing and Technology as Part of the Job 31 4.11 Summary 34 4.11.1 SPSS Analysis Ã¢â¬âDescriptive and Correlation Analysis 34 4.11.2 Linear Regression Analysis 37 Section 5: Discussion 41 Section 6: Conclusion 44 Appendix 46 Resources 53 Section 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Research The hotel business is a major part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoyment experie nce, whether on a vacation or on business trips. Like anywhere else, there are problems to be solved on a daily basis, such as the traveller has to delay checking in by one day because of flight delays or even business delays. The ability for a customer to communicate directly with the hotel through electronic communications, such as an app on a smart phone, or through a laptop while at the airport, is essential to being able to solve a problem before it gets worse. As a consequence, the ability to take care of a customer through the electronic porthole (Buhalis & Law 2008; Buhalis 2008), means more satisfaction that things will be taken care of before the customer arrives and checks in. Additionally, customers can also order dinner when they land at the airport so that moments after checking in, if at night, dinner will be brought up to the room. The menu is accessible through the hotelÃ¢â¬â¢s website portal and registered customers can access inside with a key code, which is sen t when the reservation is made. This allows the customer to custom-define his or her preferences on specific accommodations (ADA 2006), such as the need for a portable fan, drinks, certain types of water and
Nursing Application - Essay Example Some times I felt the need to assist but I lacked the capacity to do so because I was only a child. However, these occurrences usually strengthened my desire to acquire the capability to assist other people to overcome problems. From that time up to now when I am a grown-up, I still yearn to accomplish my childhood desires of becoming an expert in promoting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health and general well-being of children, adults including the healthy, the ailing and the aged. I have the conviction that becoming a nurse will empower me to accomplish my goals. I settled on the decision to apply to Dorothea Hopfer School of nursing came as a result of careful analysis regarding the various institutions that offer the program. I have met with a number of professionals in nursing as well as in other fields who graduated from the institution, and the positions that they hold in the local, as well as international organizations, are admirable. The institution has a good reputation, and local organ izations usually give the first priority to graduates from the institution. I believe that the skills that I need in nursing will be acquired through studying in the institution. I have never felt so right about accomplishing my goals through a particular institution the way I do now. I am ready to sacrifice as much time as the program requires. I have strong leadership and team building skills that enable me to learn quickly through interactions with other students. I actively participate in class and intend to continue with this practice in order to accomplish the best in my nursing studies. I feel privileged to present my application to this reputable institution where I believe my professional goals will be accomplished. I am looking forward to cooperating with the administration as well as my instructors to enhance my performance in studies.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Construction projects are as much about people as they are about technical undertakings - Essay Example Thus to properly meet the expectations and aspirations of the different stakeholder groups the project contractor must see that the project gets duly completed on a timely basis. Further the contractor must also see that the investment rendered by the different stakeholders for the effective completion of the project activity is duly addressed by generating effective returns. The contractor thereby is required to plan in adequate manner different strategies that would help in reducing the cost of the project side-by-side working to enhance the quality paradigm for the same. Working on the above manner would help the project manager and the contractor in generating adequate revenues for the different stakeholders. The project concerning construction activities also tends to render huge impact on the natural environment in the adjoining areas. Thus the paper in this regard focuses on the formulation of different strategies on behalf of the contractor that would help in gaining required solutions to the aforesaid issues (Chinyio, 2010, p.128-131). Construction Projects and Time Management Effective time management is required to be conducted for the completion of the large scale construction projects in due time. ... This procedure focuses on the estimation and monitoring of the time spent by each of the different persons involved in such project activity. This specific monitoring in regards to the time required for the construction projects thus helps in closing the deviations from the total estimated time made for the total project to complete. However the estimated time required for the completion of the total construction project does not consider the random happening of events natural or otherwise that tend to render obstruction to the ideal completion of the project. Thus an important consideration is held in this case that no abnormal events rise during the project tenure that in turn would tend to enhance the time required for the completion of the project. Uncertainty of occurrences in regards to the construction project can be accounted also in the form of contingencies. The contingencies can thereby be accounted using separate techniques like PERT. Though the technique persists for the accounting of contingencies yet it is found for a number of cases like outbreak of fire or natural calamities the same system of contingency accountability fails to render the correct result. Thus an adjustment is maintained in the form of contingencies wherein the time set is added to the normal time held for the project to get completed. Again especially in cases of construction projects it is found that the entire project activity gets dismantled owing to disturbing weather conditions. Thus the time management and setting of allowances and allocations need to be maintained on that basis. Construction projects carried out in highways become greatly affected owing to such disturbing conditions that in turn enhance the time required for
Monday, July 22, 2019
This great essay i found about life (not mine) Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Life is beautiful and yet life is not a bed of roses. Though it is full of ups and downs it has many facets of blessings and successes. To some people, life is hard, cruel and merciless. These set of people see life as punishment throughout their entire lives. They therefore resigned themselves to fate, believing all is finished. To them, nothing that they do can ever be good. They take delight in committing crimes and maiming others to avenge their ill-fortune. They lost every sense of direction and most times, some of them go as far as committing suicide, just to escape the injustice life has meted out to them. But there are those who see life as a challenge, a channel of discovery and innovation, a prospect for success and a gateway to wealth. To them life is sweet, colourful and kind. No matter the situation these people find themselves, they keep pressing on, believing in a cause, a cause to succeed and get the most out of life. No wonder an adage says, Ã¢â¬Å"Where there is life, there is hope.Ã¢â¬ The will to succeed or fail lies within an individual jurisdiction. You can live life to the fullest with utmost satisfaction and fulfillment if you determine with all your mind, body and soul to succeed. On the other hand, life can be miserable to you if you take everything for granted and wait on fate to play itself out. Setting of goals and strategic plans that will strive no matter the odds which may move against you is one of the basic things needed to get the best out of life. These goals which must be result oriented, should be followed up consistently even if things seem blurred or unyielding at first. Also, the mind is the centre of everything. It controls your thoughts and beliefs. A focused mind has never fail. A positive mind helps one to discover his talents and potentials. Great men and women, both living and dead, had their minds focused on something and nothing deterred them from achieving their dreams. Each of them had a belief, should I say faith, which they held onto, they nurture the belief, focused all their attention and live on it. And today, we have benefited in one way or the other from their inventions and great ideas. Life is a challenge. And for anyone to succeed in life, he must be ready to show the stuff he is made of. He must be ready to sacrifice his time and build up his mind frame toward success. What is happening in our environment should not influence or affect us in our daily quest for success in life. Instead, we should control the happenings around us.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Empirical Analysis On The 7ps Of Pizza Hut Marketing Essay Abstract and aim By using personal survey questionnaire, 150-200 students of City University of Hong Kong will be asked, in order to find out the competitive advantage of Pizza hut and compare with Spaghetti House for places to buy food in names and addresses from Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Territories. Addresses were area code to census tracts. Based on individual factors are traditional explanations for the inability of some people to change dietary habits. This study examines the food service by Pizza Hut and its competitive advantages over Spaghetti House Aim This work aims to find out the successful factor of other competitors and to provide suggestions and evidences in order to increase the sales and profits of Pizza Hut by improve Pizza Huts services and its competitive advantages. Background / outline Hong Kong is an international city. There are seven million residents and lots of tourists would love to shop in Hong Kong thus there are different social cultures exist including diet habit. Foreign food is playing an important role in Hong Kong to suit customers different needs. There are a lot of western restaurant in Hong Kong such as, Spaghetti House, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Pizza Hut etc. Lots of people especially teenagers like Pizza Hut very much, they love to eat western foods, so Pizza Hut attracts a bulk amount of regular customer for a long period. Pizza Hut is an American famous restaurant chain, offering different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread, Pizza Hut is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., the worlds largest restaurant company, with approximately 34,000 restaurants, delivery-carry out units, kiosks in 100 countries. Pizza Hut has been serving Hong Kong for almost 30 years. The first Pizza Hut restaurant opened in Hong Kong in 1981 with its first delivery service began in 1992, while the business of Pizza Hut is still increasing every year. Since 1987, Hong Kong Pizza Hut franchise has owned by the Jardine Matheson Group. At present, Hong Kong Pizza Hut has a total of over 70 branches and more than 3000 employees. The main competitor of Pizza Hut is Spaghetti House. Spaghetti House is also a famous western restaurant in Hong Kong. The menu of Spaghetti House is similar to Pizza Hut; its target market is a little different from Pizza Hut. Pizza Hut vs Spaghetti House Ã ¼Ã ½Which one is more famous? Ã ¼Ã ½Which one do customers prefer? Ã ¼Ã ½Which products are more competitive? We hope to find the answer during this project. In this project, well analyze the 7Ps of market strategies of Pizza Hut and take the personal survey in order to find out the competitive advantage of Pizza Hut and the comparison with Spaghetti House in Hong Kong. More, we can also know that which one is better and more famous. Secondly, we focus on physical evidences from customers opinions to improve the environments of both restaurants. Finally, we refer to the result gained from questionnaires to make the recommendations and suggest new marketing strategies to Pizza Hut for the improvement. Objective and research questions Study the demographics of target customers Determine which attributes of pizza are the most important to the customers Determine the preference of product package by the customers Determine the acceptance of new products by our target customers Identify the purchase behavior of the customers Identify which promotion channels are the most effective Measure the satisfactory level of customers towards Pizza Hut Critical Literature Review Western fast food chains development and impact in Asia Majority scholar to believe food is more affected by culture to restrict in consumption product. As far as relatively other products concerned, that is more difficult to change the customers behavior such as U.S breakfasts manufacturer Kelloggs to spend 20 years time in Japan, ability success to entry use as major rice and kelp soup make breakfast of consumption market. Some country and district such as Japan and Hong Kongs children as regards coke, pizza and spaghetti etc foreign countrys food never again, but that local food is accompany children to grow and combine in local culture. From the above, Pizza Hut can identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans. Therefore, research and development professionals stay on HK of competitor initiatives and explore demand for fast food products. Advertising agencies working with clients in the food industries understand the product buyer to develop messages and images that compel consumers to purchase Italian food products. Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships. Finally, information and research center librarians provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively. A 360Ã ° View of Fast Food and Impulse Habits Here has huge market growth potential for manufacturers and retailers to development in fast food chains and fast food services. According to the ACNielsen survey result, citizens average monthly purchase frequency in fast food, impulse food and drinks is around 20. Monthly Purchase Frequency for Impulse Food and Drinks in Hong Kong In addition, in a global consumer survey conducted over the Internet by ACNielsen in October 2004, 30 percent of Asia Pacific consumers claimed to eat takeaway at least once a week, closely behind the US (33%). As the result, eight of global top tens fast food consumption market from Asia Pacific, and Hong Kong ranks is the worlds No.1, have a fast food than traditional 26% higher than the United States , hard upon is Malaysia (59%) and the Philippines is 54%, 12% said never again to eat fast food, have 35% eat fast food even more. ACNielsens data also showed that although in the United States have 97% of adults do not mind eat fast food, but this data has also been Asia exceeded. From this result, fast food culture can popular in Hong Kong is about the Hong Kong peoples to demand fast and convenient lifestyle. Many people require swift and convenient, hurried cadence of life may not have time to cook at home, it affects our lifestyle, make to popularity of fast food culture in Hong Kong. As the same time because of the convenient location, the price is cheaper. In additional, because may about Hong Kong peoples personality, most are not satisfied to spend too much time on waiting. However, teenagers usually to eating fast food more during the noon or after school. While an adults to eat breakfast is out of home that provides an opportunity for suppliers and retailers. So, fast food culture is the most sales in Hong Kong. Top 10 Global Markets for Weekly Fast Food Consumption Hong Kong 61% Malaysia 59% Philippines 54% Singapore 50% Thailand 44% China 41% India 37% US 35% Australia 30% New Zealand 29% Source: ACNielsen Online Survey, October 2004 Modeling repurchases frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets In this competition environment of Hong Kong, leading the company is necessary customer that requires spending many resources to enhance customer loyalty and satisfaction with the company. Therefore, the company need understanding what factor is affect customers behavior and satisfaction, and then try to improve the customer services quality in the fast food industry, thus help make more loyalty customers. Improving service quality has become one of the most important strategies a service provider can use to differentiate itself from its competitors and thus position itself more effectively in the marketplace (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). Rust and Oliver (1994) suggested that quality is one dimension on which satisfaction is based. Although many studies provide a theoretical basis for studying the relationship between waiting time, consumer satisfaction and return frequency, they have failed to investigate the relationship between waiting time and the return frequency. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of waiting time and other service quality factors on customer satisfaction and return frequency in the fast food industry. As waiting time appears to be a vital factor of the services in fast food operations, therefore, fast food industry is chosen for our research purpose. Based on a survey of fast food outlets, we formulate a repurchase frequency model and a satisfaction model. The repurchase frequency model describes the relationship between the number of return visits and service quality factors including waiting time. The overall satisfaction model describes the relationship between the customers overall satisfaction level, the waiting time and other service quality factors. These models will help managers to identify root causes for customer satisfaction and loyalty and thus enable them to make focused improvements in critical areas to improve profitability. Hong Kong fast food culture Hong Kong is a delicacies paradise, and also is a fast food paradise, various Chinese and Western fast food restaurant at Hong Kong everywhere, lunch take-out to office are also has good idea or business. Hong Kong fast cadence of life, high working performance, many things have to stress efficiency and effectiveness of demand. It is because fast food more emphasize fast, therefore many foods have prepared cooked and heating for consumers. So, fast food culture offers fast and convenient especially popular for peoples. Nowadays, the purposes to co-operate for healthy fashion, fast food already changed into emphasize foods quality and sustenance, many foods have consumer to pay or order then start cook. Therefore, foods will more fresh and higher quality than prepared cooked. At the other hard, fast food chain to be particular about decoration than before, show the high class and city lifestyle; Detrude of fast-food restaurants in recent years, hot pot, iron meals and other food types, making customers to stay longer in the fast-food restaurants, but also because of the fast-food restaurants to make food choices many more customers are willing to patronize fast food restaurants. A financial tsunami to assist development fast food industry Although global financial tsunami cause economic recession, but fast food always is catering trades exotic flowers, Pizza Hut, Burger King, McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) these fast food chains have grow a business volume in this period. CafÃ © De Coral, Pizza Hut etc. also want to development this period. Due to economic crisis affected unemployment and so on reason, thus affected consumers confidence. However, relatives enhance of fast foods attraction, increasing peoples in order to save times or money abandoned traditional restaurant meals, and tend to choice fast food. Therefore, fast food chain has obtained more market. Form the above; Pizza Hut should continue its diversification strategy to gain more market share. It should incorporate or develop healthier food include low-carbohydrate pizzas to satisfy the needs of different customer. If it is able to stay ahead of the competition in this aspect, they will have a strong competitive advantage over other companies. Service quality in the fast food industry Service quality has become a predominant part of all advanced organizations strategic plans. Increasing attention paid to service quality has resulted in more progress and profit for organizations. At an international marketing level, in a struggle for a share of market, managers have to understand and know how to modify their operations for success in the various cultures of Hong Kong. From the above reason, can organization provide good service; staffs quality and skills have important influence. Therefore, enhance staff with the training and improve the quality of services, Including improves the quality of staff and customer service and provide effective services such as staff is advised to review the guests a la carte in order to reduce opportunities for error, the menu and dishes can be coded to facilitate data input, restaurant customers should be informed in advance of waiting or cooking time and adoption a recognized service standards and guidelines etc. These can be satisfying consumers needs and attraction their have to patronize. Research methods/ Methodologies Category Options The degree to which the research question has been crystallized 1. Exploratory study 2. Formal study The method of data collection Monitoring Communication Study The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study Experimental Ex post facto The purpose of the study Reporting Descriptive Causal-Explanatory The time dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal The topical scope Breadth and depth of the study Case Statistical study The research environment Field setting Simulation The participants perceptional awareness of the research activity Actual routine The main purpose of our study is needed to find out the comparison of Pizza Hut and Spaghetti house. We need to collect the primary data and secondary data to analysis Pizza Huts 7Ps mainly. (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical environment) First, we collect the secondary data from internet to know backgrounds, histories, objective, and the annual reports of Pizza Hut and Spaghetti House etc. Then, we collect other useful information on the internet. Afterwards, we go to libraries to find books such as population information and literature. After that, we use Self- Administered Surveys (Intercept and computer) and Personal Interview (Questionnaire) to collect the primary data. Indeed that information is related to our objective. To collect primary data, we will design a set of questionnaire about 7Ps. The method is taken by samples in Hong Kong (different regions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territory). The proportion will be 60:80:60, a half of male and female. It can be avoided unfair saturation. The sample size will be 200 that it can be reduced bias. The age distribution limits are 10 to 40. Our survey method is face-to-face interview, after the interview well give them a gift. (Such as coupon) We can understand Pizza Huts competitive advantage through information and make the recommendations on new market strategies for Pizza Hut for further improvement. However, we have limited information in secondary data. In conclude, our information mainly come from primary data. Secondary data is collected from other peoples or organizations, general major secondary datas sources are internet and daily, moreover including survey, census and companys records. However, the primary data is reversing the secondary data, its major used in survey research works. Secondary datas advantages is save more collect datas time, because many background work may carried out or complete, such as some reviews and case studies was carried out, statistics and published book may used to media promotion. And about the secondary datas disadvantages, because the data sources not every is trusty, even authorities data may undependable. Secondary data can be obtained from two different research strands Quantitative and Qualitative. Quantitative included housing, social security, census and other related databases. Qualitative included focus groups transcripts, observation records, structured interviews, semi-structured, research-related documents and other personal. Any required respondent to complete the questionnaire by oneself is referred to as a self-administered survey. The most survey method is via use internet, fax, newspaper and e-mail, or via restaurant and shops feedback form. According to this self-administered survey is require some inaccurately questionnaire considerations, because have some respondent may cause sensitive question or other special reason thus to indiscriminate answer the questions. Self-administered surveys advantage is using anonymous form to answer the questionnaire, thus make the questionnaires answer have more effective and true. At the other hard, can make respondent more convenient to answer, and can eliminate the bias, the cost is more than telephone and personal interview cheaper. However, the most of self-administered survey also not actual to control who to answer questionnaire, the respondent may read other part of respondents answer, thus affect their feedback. A personal interview is one of direct research method that allows face to face conversation between an interviewer and the respondent at home, in shopping centers or everywhere. The use of personal interviews provides interviewers with opinions, and the process of interaction via understanding. Personal interviews allow analyses of thoughts, attitudes, behaviors, and opinions that have a high level of content validity (Babbie, 2006). Personal interviews are an appropriate qualitative data collection methodology in a variety of settings including exploration of issues in sensitive areas such as internal agency evaluations or internal agency satisfaction studies. Personal interviews allow participants to share qualitative information in a manner that allows freer expression of ideas and opinions. Advantages of personal interviews: 1. Qualitative data obtained from small sample. 2. Rapport leads to fewer refusals. 3. In-depth answers possible. 4. Observation improves accuracy. Disadvantage of personal interviews: 1. Invasion of privacy. 2. Interviewer bias. 3. Cost: Professional Interviewer expensive. 4. People not at home. 5. Can be slow and time consuming. 6. Postal surveys: Distributing or mailing door to door a written questionnaire to a sample of buyers for their completion at home or at work. Project Plan/Gantt Chart
Interrupts In Operating Systems Computer Science Essay To successfully control several processes the core of operating system makes utilize of what is known as interrupt. Interrupt is a machine used for implementing the multitasking concept. It is a signal from hardware or software to point out the incidence of the event. When one or more process running and at similar time if user give an additional process then interrupt is take place. If the CPU does not poll the control bit, but instead receives an interrupt when the device is ready for the next byte, the data transfer is said to be interrupt driven. A hardware interrupt occurs, when an I/O operation is done such as analysis some data into the computer from a tape drive. In additional term hardware interrupts are used by devices to communicate that they need awareness from the operating system. Some familiar examples are a hard disk signaling that is has read a sequence of data blocks, or that a network device has processed a buffer containing network packets. Interrupts are also worn for asynchronous events, such as the appearance of new data from an exterior network. Hardware interrupts are delivered straight to the CPU via a little network of interrupt administration and routing devices. Hardware interrupts are referenced by an interrupt numeral. These statistics are mapped back to the section of hardware that produced the interrupt. This enables the system to monitor which device formed the interrupt and when it occurred. In most computer systems, interrupts are handled as speedily as possible. When an interrupt is acknowledged, any recent action is blocked and an interrupt handler is executed. The handler will anticipate any supplementary running programs and system actions, which can time-consuming the entire system down, and generate latencies. MRG Real-time modifies the way interrupts are handled in array to progress performance, and reduce latency. Software interrupts A software interrupt occurs when an application program terminates or needs definite services from the operating system. Software interrupt generated contained by a processor by executing an instruction. Software interrupt are frequently used to implemented system calls because they implemented a subroutine call with a CPU ring stage modify. Timed interrupts The timed interrupt is worn when a convinced event MUST happen at a specified frequency. Interrupt vectorÃ AnÃ interrupt vectorÃ is theÃ memory addressÃ of anÃ interrupt handler, or directory into a group called anÃ interrupt vector tableÃ orÃ dispatch table. Interrupt vector tables include the memory addresses of interrupt handlers. When an interruptÃ is generated, the processor saves its completing state through aÃ context switch, and begins effecting of the interrupt handler at the interrupt vector. Answer 2 Microkernel A Microkernel tries to run the majority services like networking, file system, etc. All thats left to do for the kernel are essential services, like memory allocation, scheduling, and messaging (Inter Process Communication). IPC Hardware Server S/W Kernel In theory, this model makes the kernel additional receptive (since a large amount of functionality resides in traceable user-space threads and processes, removing the require for context-switching into the kernel proper), and improves the constancy of the kernel by reducing the quantity of code running in kernel space. There are also supplementary benefits for OS that carry multi-CPU computers (much simpler reentrancy security and better correctness for asynchronous functionality) and distributed OS (code can use services without knowing if the service contributor is running on the similar computer or not). A disadvantage is the sum of messaging and Context Switching concerned, which makes microkernels conceptually slower than monolithic kernel. Modular Kernel A modular kernel is an effort to combine the excellent points of kernel-level drivers and moderator drivers. In a modular kernel, a few part of the system core will be situated in autonomous files called modules that can be additional to the system at run time. Depending on the substance of those modules, the aim can differ such as: just loading drivers if a device is in fact establish only load a file system if it gets really requested, just load the code for a precise scheduling, security or any policy when it should be evaluated. Modular and layered kernel compare and contrast The modular kernel approach requires subsystems to interrelate with each other through suspiciously constructed interfaces that are naturally narrow (in conditions of the functionality that is showing to external modules). The layered kernel moves toward is similar in that admiration. However, the layered kernel imposes a firm ordering of subsystems such that subsystems at the subordinate layers are not allowed to appeal to operations parallel to the upper-layer subsystems. There are no such limitations in the modular-kernel approach, wherein modules are open to invoke each other not including any constraints. Answer 3 What is a context switch? Context switching occurs when singleÃ processÃ provisionally discontinues execution and an additionalÃ processÃ resumes execution in its position. Context switching is performed by theÃ scheduler. To give each process on a multi-programmed machine a light contribute to of the CPU, hardware clock generates interrupts every so often. This allows the operating system to program every process in core memory (via scheduling algorithm) to run on the CPU at the same intervals. Every time a clock interrupt occurs, the interrupt handler checks how much time the recent running process has used. If it has used up its total time segment, then the CPU scheduling algorithm (in kernel) picks a dissimilar process to run. Each switch of the CPU from one process to a new is called a context switch. What actions are taken by a kernel to context switch? Actions are taken by a kernel to context switch surrounded by threads. The threads contribute to a lot of resources with more peer threads belonging to the equal process. So a context switch along with threads for the similar process is effortless. It involves switch of register position, the program counter along with the stack. It is comparatively easy for the kernel to achieve this task. Actions are taken by a kernel to context switch among Processes. Context switches among processes are exclusive. Ahead of a process can be switched its PCB (process control block) should be saved by the operating system. The PCB consists of the subsequent information: The process state, the program counter, the principles of the different registers, The CPU scheduling information for the process, Memory organization information concerning the process, Possible accounting information for this process, I/O status information of the process. When the PCB of the presently executing process is saved the operating system loads the PCB of the subsequently process that has to be performing on CPU. This is an important job and it takes a lot of time. Answer 4 System calls System calls are functions that a programmer can call to perform the services of the operating system. Processes that run in user mode and how processes and libraries can cause execution in kernel mode. The interface between these two modes is provided byÃ system calls. These are function calls that cause requests to be made to the kernel and the kernel to execute on behalf of those requests. CommandsÃ UNIX System CallsÃ LibrariesÃ File FormatsÃ GamesÃ Device DriversÃ System MaintenanceÃ System calls implemented by an operating system User cannot execute privileged instructions. Users must ask OS to execute them system calls. System calls are often implemented using traps. OS gains control through trap, switches to supervisor model, performs service, switches back to client mode, and gives control back to client. Dual mode The dual mode operation provides us with the resources for protecting the operating system from erroneous users. User mode and monitor mode are the two modes. Monitor mode is also called superintendent mode, system mode or privileged mode. Mode bit is attached to the hardware of the computer to point toward the present mode. In argument 0 mode bit is for monitor mode and 1 mode bit is for user mode. Application programming interface An application program interface is the precise technique set by a computerÃ operating systemÃ or by anÃ application programÃ by which a programmer scripting an application program can create requirements of the operating system or a different application. An application program interface can be contrasted with aÃ graphical user interfaceÃ or aÃ command interface (both of which are directÃ user interface) as interfaces to an operating system or a program. For example: Network application programming interface (API) The services that provide the interface between application and protocol software. Application Network API Protocol A Protocol B Protocol C Different methods of passing data to the operating system In a computer system having variety of memory address spaces, such as user space and kernel space, a technique and system is provided for communicating data. A data structure is distinct in the kernel space to stock up data. The data structure is nearly mapped to an application in user space such that the application can contact the data structure via virtual memory addresses. By directly accessing the data structure, data transfers between the address spaces using system calls and interrupts can be reduced. Answer 5 What is Process Scheduling? Process scheduling is a method that is used when there are limited assets and many processes are competing for them; Multiprogramming tries to make sure that there is a number of process running at all times. This is completed to utilize the CPU as much as possible. In timesharing system, the CPU switches so regularly between jobs grey_loader that the user does not experience that the machine is being mutual by many processes or even several users. What are the differences between short-term, medium-term, and long-term scheduling? Long term scheduler determines which programs are admitted to the system for processing. It controls the degree of multiprogramming. Once admitted, a job becomes a process. Medium term scheduling is division of the exchange utility. This relate to processes that are in a blocked or suspended state. They are swapped out of real-memory until they are prepared to execute. The swapping-in decision is based on memory-management criteria. Short term scheduler, also known as a dispatcher executes most regularly, and makes the finest-grained conclusion of which process should execute subsequently. This scheduler is invoked whenever an occasion occurs. It may direct to interruption of one process by pre-emption. Process state The state of process is distinct in fraction by the present activity of the process. Each process may be in one of the following states: New Running Waiting Ready Terminated These state names are random, and they differ across operating systems. The states that they correspond to are establishing on all operating systems, however. Certain operating systems more finely describe process states. Only one process can be running on any processor at any immediate, although numerous processes may be ready and waiting.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Discuss the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment along with the subsequent reaction as embodied by the Romantic movement. Give specific examples of how these movements affected the arts. What was their eventual impact on the western intellectual world. The Scientific revolution and The Enlightenment period overlapped by a hundred years and were co-occurring between 1650-1750. The Scientific Revolution happening first and beginning around 1600, was a period of time when new ideas and tools were created and used to experiment with the physical world, occurring between 1600-1750. New methods increased learning capacities across the board and toward what was thought of as Ã¢â¬Å"human perfectibilityÃ¢â¬ , old ideas were put through a new test of empirical reasoning. Galileo Galilei made advances in astronomy by advancing the design of already existing telescopes by add a 30 power magnification, as a result he received major opposition from the Roman Catholic church (Landmarks 295). During this time Francis Bacon also made a plea for separation between science and religion in his 1620 writing Ã¢â¬Å"Novum OrganumÃ¢â¬ . The Enlightenment period, which was fueled by the Scientific revolution was also called the Age of Reason. The time period was between 1650 and 1800, lasting half a century past the Scientific Revolution. Both eras were based on fact, knowledge and reason as opposed to religion, much like the ancient Greco-Roman advancement. The enlightenment saw the formation of social sciences: anthropology, sociology, economics, and political science Ã¢â¬âall devoted to the study of humankind and the guarantee of higher and more enlightened social order and achievements (Landmarks 297). During this period philosophers continued to fiercely de... ... was missing from the Enlightenment. The overall reaction to the Enlightenment tossed out social ills and accepted the Scientific revolution for what it was but left it slow to progress until the 20th century which brought about advanced in digital information. The impact of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment on the western world caused philosophers, scholars, and free thinkers to speculate if reason could solve poverty, war, and ignorance. New ways of thinking and reasoning, like the empirical method led to new ideas about government, religion, education, and economics. Works cited Baldasso, Renzo. "The Role of Visual Representation in the ScientiÃ¯ ¬ c Revolution: A Historiographic Inquiry." Print. Fiero, Gloria K. Landmarks in Humanities. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Medicine and Hospitals in the Civil War The Civil War had more deaths than all previous wars combined. Most people think those soldiers in the Civil War died of wounds or amputations, but the truth is that most died from common diseases that they never had been exposed to. Twice as many soldiers died from diseases than those soldiers who died in battle. Most people in the beginning of the war; thought it was only going to last a few weeks or months, so not much effort was put into recruiting doctors or surgeons. Even so, surgeons really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have formal training in medicine. They did not know much about bacteriology and were ignorant of what caused diseases. Most Civil War surgeons also had never treated a gun shot wound or performed surgery, which led to the fact that they were not qualified at all. They would usually have 2 years of schooling, with only bookwork in the first year, and the second year would usually just be a repeat. However, doctors tried the best they could at treating the wounded and injured, and knowledge of medicine improved a little bit more each year. Most qualified surgeons started off as litter bearer and would carry men off the battlefield. If any of them showed interest in the medical field, they could become a Steward. A Steward's job was to take care of patients with minor wounds such as, scratches, and bumps. The other duties of a Steward were to pull teeth and take care of medicines for the surgeons. The Steward would also guard the medicinal stores, because often soldiers would try to break into the medicinal stores where the morphine, opium, and whisky were stored. If a Steward completed these duties, then he might be allowed to assist a surgeon in an operation, which could lead to becoming an assistant surgeon. He could then later on become an experienced and qualified surgeon. Soldiers faced diseases like measles, small pox, malaria, pneumonia, camp itch, mumps, typhoid and dysentery. However, diarrhea killed more soldiers than any other illness. There were many reasons that diseases were so common for the causes of death for soldiers. Reasons include the fact that there were poor physicals before entering the army, ignorance of medical information, lack of camp hygiene, insects that carried disease, lack of clothing and shoes, troops were crowded and in close quarters and inadequate food and water.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months When born, babies show innate reflexes, such as swallowing and sucking, rooting reflex, grasp reflex, startle reflex, walking and standing reflex; in the first month babies become less curled up and the startle reflex is starting to fade; toward the end of the third month babies start lifting and turning their heads. 3-6 months When lying on front babies can lift their arms and legs balancing on their tummies; they can reach and grab a toy and they can pass it from one hand to another; they can also roll from their backs to front; around sixth month babies are becoming able to sit with support (e. g. high chair). 6-9 months Babies can sit without support; they are beginning to crawl or find other ways of being mobile (bottom-shuffling); starting to use fingers to feed. 9-12 months Babies are becoming very mobile, fast crawling, standing up by the furniture, some babies walk along the furniture using their hands to hold on; developing abilities to handle objects and putting them into containers; babies able to feed themselves with fingers. 1-2 years At the beginning of this period babies are beginning to walk and around 18 months they are becoming more and more skilful on their feet, moving faster; toddlers around this age begin to sit and push with their legs to move on the sit-and-ride toys. Towards their second year children walk confidently, they can run and climb; towards the end of the second year some children are becoming ready to start potty training. 2-4 years In the third year children start potty training; they become able to push with feet or peddle a tricycle; children can walk upstairs alternating their feet; towards the end of the this period children are skilful enough to feed and dress themselves; they are able to do threading, pouring and they can use scissors. 4-7 years Physical development less rapid, however skills are becoming more refined and movements more coordinated. Ability to kick and control ball; development of fine motor skills essential for handwriting. 7-12 years Good coordination of small and large movements; growing physical skilfulness means task can be done quicker, more accurately and more confidently; neater drawing and writing; accurate cutting. Between 9 and 12 children gain even better coordination and speed in fine and gross motor skills. Around 11th year the bodies of some girls are starting to change (growing breasts) and some might start their periods. 12-16 years Gradual body changes in both girls and boys (girls physically mature quicker [around 15/ 16] than boys [around 17/18]. Fast body changes may affect spatial awareness which can become occasionally poor as a result. 16-19 years The maturing of the body is finishing with the full development of sexual organs; the body is taking a distinctive female or male shape. 023 Table 2: Intellectual and cognitive development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months Quite early on babies are able to recognise the smell of their mother and her voice; later they become familiar with voices of important others and they can be calmed when they hear them; they are interested in faces. In their 3rd month babies start to differentiate between day and night (settled routine); babies become interested in mobiles and other objects around them. 3-6 months Babies are becoming interested in what is happening around them, turning their head in the direction of interest; objects are being explored by hands and mouth. 6-9 months Developing fine motor skills allow babies for a better exploration of objects by handling and touching with fingers; around 8 or 9 months babies understand object permanence (objects continue to exists even when out of sight). 9-12 months Babies are more aware of what is happening around them, they are starting to understand routines through signals (bib = food) 1-2 years Children enjoy pop-up and posting toys and in their 2nd year they are starting to have a go at simple jigsaw puzzles and building bricks. 2-4 years Children pretend play with miniature world; they more interested in books, mark making and painting. In their fourth year children are able to concentrate and focus longer on activities which which caught their interest. 4-7 years Children begin to do some simple counting and calculations, recognizing letters is followed by gradual decoding of simple words and later by reading. 7-12 years Reading and writing is becoming easier, children start reading silently to themselves. Play becomes more organized and follows rules. Development of thinking and reasoning is demonstrated through independent problem solving. 12-16 years Further development of reasoning and problem solving; children are gradually starting to understand more abstract concepts. 16-19 years Cognitive abilities are becoming further refined, leading to high level skills in young people. 023 Table 3: Communication development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months To start with babies express their hunger, tiredness or other discontent through crying; around 5th/6th week babies start to coo when content; in the third month babies start smiling and reciprocate smiles. 3-6 months Babies starting to understand a little of what is being said and they are starting to give some communication signals themselves (e. g. raised arms when they want to be picked up). 6-9 months Babies become quite vocal, babbling with a differentiated tuneful string of sounds. They are also starting to understand various important key words connected with their routines (e. g. ?dinner? ). 9-12 months Babies clearly show they understand more of what is being said around them/ to them. Babbling is still main way of communication. 1-2 years First meaningful sounds/ words are beginning to emerge around 13 months, and at the end of 2nd year children might have a vocabulary of about 200 words. 2-4 years Language is becoming a powerful means of communication. From connecting two words first children are beginning gradually to build up sentences and their talking is becoming understandable even to those who are not in regular contact with the child. Even though there might be the odd mistake in the sentence structure, the language toward the end of this period is becoming fluent and children ask questions and generally enjoy expressing themselves through language. 4-7 years Children are becoming involved with written language Ã¢â¬â they are starting to learn to read and write. 7-12 years Reading and writing becomes easier now; at the beginning of this period children enjoy telling jokes to others; apart from chatting, children are beginning to be able to form a simple argument and be persuasive, they are becoming increasingly able to negotiate with others. Their writing shows more grammatical awareness as well as own imagination. 12-16 years Reading and writing skills are becoming very good and children are becoming increasingly skilful in negotiating and persuasion of others (peers and adults). 16-19 years Communication with peers is becoming very important; differentiation between formal and informal language and its use in real life is becoming more and more important; young people use different means to communicate (via phones, mobile messaging, emails, facebook, etc. ). 023 Table 4: Social, emotional and behavioural development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months First social contacts are being established mainly during feeding; at the end of the first month babies start to show first smiles which then gradually become response to familiar faces. 3-6 months Babies smile and squeal with delight when playing with familiar others. 6-9 months Babies try to stay close to their primary carers and around 8 months babies may become distressed when their primary carer leaves. 9-12 months Babies are fixed on their carers and do not want to be with strangers. 1-2 years Children start notice other children around them and they show some interest in them and later start parallel play. They also start show some frustrations and tantrums as they gradually discover some boundaries. 2-4 years Children play alongside others and may start copying their actions. Around the third year children become more aware of others and their needs which also reflects in their play which is gradually starting to be more and more cooperative. Children enjoy being praised by adults. 4-7 years Developing language is helping children to form better relationships and children begin to show some preferences in friendships. 7-12 years Friendships are becoming more stable and more important and may influence decision making (if my friend is doing something I might be more likely doing it also). Gender specific play is becoming more apparent. Children start to compare themselves to others. Children enjoy being given some responsibilities. 12-16 years Friends and friendships are very important and gradually opinions from friends might feel more important that those of parents/ carers. This leads to exploration and challenge of the boundaries of relationships as well as learning to deal with disagreements, arguments, etc. There are anxieties coming from pressures from school. 16-19 years Young people enjoy being with their friends, they are finding discovering their own identity and sense of belonging to a group/ groups of specific characteristics which defines for them who they are (religious groups, sport group, goth, etc. ) 023 Table 5: Moral development Age range Explain the sequence and rate of development 0-3 months 3-6 months 6-9 months 9-12 months Children might start paying attention to Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ and might stop their behaviour for a moment. 1-2 years Children are beginning to understand Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ and they start using it themselves. 2-4 years At the beginning of this phase still no understanding what is right or wrong but children understand when they are said Ã¢â¬Å"NoÃ¢â¬ . Later they become able to follow some simple rules. Around 4 years children are becoming thoughtful at times but most of the times will decide what to do on the basis of adult approval. 4-7 years Children are beginning to understand rules; they try to understand them, follow them and may attempt to create their own rules where no rules are given (made-up game with friends). 7-12 years Children share their knowledge of rules with others and will readily point out if someone breaks the rules. Later they are becoming more aware of behaviour consequences and they are generally becoming more thoughtful. 12-16 years Children are beginning to be aware of a bigger picture Ã¢â¬â rules of communities and societies and they are beginning to understand the need for that. 16-19 years There is a interest in moral issues, finding out that right and wrong is not always black and white. Questioning and testing of rules. A2 Answer the following questions. 1. What is the difference between Ã¢â¬ËsequenceÃ¢â¬â¢ of development and Ã¢â¬ËrateÃ¢â¬â¢ of development? 2. Why is the difference important? (Ref 1. 2) Q1. What is the difference between a sequence of development and rate of development? Sequence of development is the order in which development occurs, e. g. children are able to sit before they learn to crawl. The order of the sequences in development are always the same (even though there might be some individual differences: babies always learn to move about before standing up and walking, but some babies bottom-shuffle instead of crawling). Rate, on the other hand, is the speed in which individuals go through the stages/ sequences of development. Most children learn to walk when they are about 12 months old. However, some babies might be ready to walk when they are 10 months old and others when they are 15 months old. Individuals might also be developing with different rate in different areas, e. g. some children might be developing quickly physically, but their speech might be delayed. These individual differences are results of genetic predispositions and other biological influences as well as environmental stimulation. Q2. Why is the difference important? Knowing the sequences of development in different areas is important for practitioners to be able to plan accordingly and therefore to support the development in individuals. The rate of the development is important in terms of recognizing any atypical development and recommending/ searching any additional interventions when needed. TASK B Complete table; Research and report B1 Complete a table as shown on the following page, identifying the different personal and external factors that influence children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s development. (Ref 2. 1, 2. 2) B2 Produce a report to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of differing theories of development. This report should identify how these theories have influenced current practice and include the following: Cognitive (e. g. Piaget) Psychoanalytic (e. g. Freud) Humanist (e. g. Maslow) Social learning (e. g. Bandura) Operant conditioning (e. g. Skinner) Behaviourist (e. g. Watson) Social pedagogy. Over the years there have been many theories trying to explain certain aspects of development, behaviour, learning, etc. In the following text we will look at the most influential theories which are being used by practitioners in better understanding as well as day to day work with children and young people. After a brief description of how an individual theory was founded, we will discuss the key points for work at nurseries. Theory of cognitive development (Constructivist approach) Theory of cognitive development is connected with the name of Jean Piaget (1896-1980) who through work on intelligence tests started to notice how children at same stages make very similar mistakes in their tasks and problem solving approaches. Piaget then closely observed his own children, capturing their development in details and later using these observations to create a theory of cognitive development. Piaget considered children as active learners who create ? schemas? (believes) about the world based on their experiences. This is how they make sense about what is happening around them. However, a child? s schemas are going to be challanged time to time by new and unexpected experiences and as a result existing schema will have to adapted to fit these in (e. g. touching something hot will alter the notion that everything is safe to touch and child will learn that certain objects can hurt when being touched). Piaget? s theory influenced the practice by having a ? child-centred? approach. In our setting, for example, we make regular observations on what our children are interested in and what they like to play/ do. After careful evaluations and identifications of possible next steps of development we plan activities which as well as reflecting children? s interest also further challenge them to encourage the development. Psychoanalytic theory of personality Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) suggested that every personality has got three parts to it Ã¢â¬â id, ego and superego. We all are born with id, which is the part of our personality that is driven by our desires and reflects in pleasure-seeking behaviour. Id is selfish and passionate and it is purely after satisfying its needs, known as ? gratification?. However, through social contact and learning babies/children gradually learn to be aware of the outside world and eventually of needs of others. They will be developing ego, which is able to plan the actions so the needs of the individual can still be met but in more socially desired way, e. g. ability to wait for once turn when the food is being served at pre-school settings. This is called ? differed gratification?. Later, as a result of further parenting and learning about social and cultural values, the superego is developed. Superego could be described as an internalised parent as the child is starting to be aware of what is good and what is bad without external reminder Ã¢â¬â e. g. I must not hit because it hurts. If the behaviour trespasses the imperatives of the superego, the individual will feel guilt as they are now aware that their behaviour was bad (this is referred as ? conscience? ). Apart from judging conscience, superego has got a notion of an ego-ideal to which it will strive. When ego demonstrates good behaviour the ego-ideal part of superego will reward this, e. g. feeling good after doing something for someone else even when external praise is not present. Even though Freud has been criticised for basing his description and explanations of development on sexual motives, some of his theoretical concepts are now widely accepted (e. g. the concept of unconscious mind Ã¢â¬â id and most of superego). One could say that orientation on children? s needs might be partly inspired by Freud? s ideas about the dynamics of id, ego and superego. Too strong superego and suppressed unconscious id will lead to many problems in adult life, where individual tries to live mainly by what is required by the outside world rather than allowing themselves to follow own desires. In early years healthy development of ego can be supported by putting the child and their needs in the centre of our attention; activities and work with children is individualized and child-led, yet still well planned and safe. For example, in our setting we might notice that a particular child enjoys opening and closing doors, gates, etc. Instead of completely discouraging him from doing that we might identify situations when it might be appropriate for him/her to do so and explain the necessary things around it in a child-friendly way (e. g. : When everybody has got their shoes on, you can open the door, Henry. , We will keep the gate closed now, because we are going to play in the yard now. , Mind your fingers when closing the door Ã¢â¬â you could close them in and that would really hurt. , etc. ). If we say ? no? to children it is good to make sure that the child knows about the reasons behind our decisions (even though they might find it hard initially anyway, they are more likely to come round and understand it in their own time). Humanistic theory of motivation and personality Ã¢â¬â Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Maslow studied motivation in people and came up with what is now known as Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow divided the needs into five categories (physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualisation) and put them in hierarchical order from the most essential and basic needs to higher-order needs. Maslow argues that it is necessary to fulfil the needs from from the bottom of the hierarchy first to be able to meet the needs of higher order. Only when all the other lower needs are met, an individual can focus on fulfilling the highest needs of self-actualisation, such as creativity, problem solving, morality, etc. In our practice we are aware, that when a child is for example overtired and hungry (the most basic physiological needs), there is no space to try to fit in other things, e. g. ?wait for your turn? , ? say please? ,Ã¢â¬ ¦. (which would be working on their higher order needs, such as love/belonging (friendship) or esteem (respect for others, respect by others). This child at that stage needs to be fed and put to sleep as soon as possible and other input has to wait until the child is again able to tune to it/ receive it. Social cognitive theory Social cognitive theory has its roots in behaviouristic approach. However, Albert Bandura (born 1925), even though accepting learning by conditioning, argued that lots of learning happens through social observations (? observational learning? ). Observational learning is when children copy what other children or adults do; in comparison to conditioning, observational learning happens spontaneously and often without the need for reinforcement. Cognitive abilities seem to play an important role in observational learning as children need to be capable to notice the activity itself as well as remember it accurately. As staff we need to be mindful in the way we act and interact in front of children as they are likely to copy our behaviour. In accordance with the social cognitive theory we try to set good examples to the children in our settings by showing good manners and being courteous to them as well as to one another. Behaviourist approach to learning Ã¢â¬â operant conditioning Operant conditioning is based on classical conditioning (I. P. Pavlov; J. B. Watson), which teaches that certain behaviour/ reaction can be connected with a stimulus through conditioning, e. g. fear of cats after a bad experience with a cat. F. B. Skinner (1904-1990) however took this a bit further and through experiments mainly with pigeons and rats showed that learning can be strengthen by reinforcements, such as positive reinforcement (praise, sticker, attention, etc. ), negative reinforcement (this is removing something which is negative from the situation so it no longer poses a ? threat? or causes negative emotions and the whole experience becomes more positive, e. g. child does want to play with a toy because it is scared of the noises it makes Ã¢â¬â by switching the sound off, the child is able to explore the toy) and punishers (negative consequence which is likely to prevent individuals to repeat their behaviour Ã¢â¬â e. g. touching hot iron). Skinner researched most effective ways to retain the learnt behaviour and he found out that even though continuous positive reinforcement is good at the beginning of the learning, later unpredictable positive reinforcement keeps the learnt behaviour in place for longer period of time. This is because even though the reward comes frequently, we are not sure when it is going to come next and therefore we keep doing the behaviour. At our setting we might be using operant conditioning for example when we are helping a child to potty train. First every sitting on the potty, regardless of results will be rewarded. When the child gets into the habit of sitting on the potty, then only successful potty session will be rewarded with a sticker (however praise for trying when unsuccessful remains). When starting to do regularly this stickers might gradually become praise and sticker will be awarded if the child successfully asks for potty when they need it. Behaviourist approach to learning Ã¢â¬â Classical conditioning J. B. Watson (1878 Ã¢â¬â 1958) followed I. P. Pavlov? s work on classical conditioning with animals (dogs salivating when food arrived became then salivating even at the mere sight of the bowl; Pavlov took this further by conditioning completely unrelated food stimulus, such as bell or light, which after regular presence at the mealtimes would later on its own initiate the salivating response in dogs). Watson showed that classical conditioning is possible in humans as well (famous Little Albert experiment, where a baby was conditioned to have fear of rats). Classical conditioning is not really used in practice as a active way of teaching, however its theory can be used for observational purposes (e. g. recognising when sucking thumb signals hunger etc. ). Social pedagogy Social pedagogy is a discipline which brings together theory and practice in order to assure the best and holistic way of supporting children in their development and education. The overall aim of social pedagogy is to give children and young people the best possible chances for their future lives. In accordance with social pedagogy the Early Years Foundation Stage Framework (EYFS) has been devised to capture the development in early years and to help professionals to monitor, plan and support effectively individual development. For better and focused understanding the development has been divided into seven areas, out of which three are recognised as prime areas (Personal, Social and Emotional Development; Communication and Language; Physical Development) and four are described as specific areas of development (Literacy; Mathematics; Understanding the World; Expressive Arts and Design). The support the professionals can provide is differentiated into helpful advice in positive relationship and suggestions for enabling environments. In EYFS we can see influence of Piaget? s work in enabling environments where the focus is predominantly on individual? s own experience. We can also strongly identify the theory of ? zone of proximal development? by Vygotsky (cognitive development) in EYFS as we can easily identify where children are in their development, what is the next developmental stage for them and how we can support this next step. 023 Personal and external factors influencing development B3 Personal Factors: Give ONE explanation of a positive influence on the development of children and young people Health status: given by genetic predispositions as well as environmental factors, such as diet, pollution, stress, etc. If obesity is genetically passed on in the family than healthy diet together with developing positive attitude towards regular exercise will help the child to maintain a good health. Disability: Physical impairment, such as missing or underdeveloped limb Wheel chair together with barrier free environment (e. g. lifts, ramps, low sinks, etc. ) will help to support independence of an individual. Sensory impairment: visual impairments, hearing impairments, death-blindness, When working with individuals with visual impairment, we can use the other senses to compensate and provide necessary stimulation which helps the development, e. g. using special toys/ learning material which uses touch and sound as a mean of gaining information. However, if there is some vision left (which usually there is), the environment can be adjusted by using contrast colours, non-reflective material, good lighting, etc. Learning difficulties: Dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysortographia, ADHD, ADD Children with ADHD benefit from having a regular routine. Activities needs to be short and well planned with simple and easy to follow instructions. Hands-on activities with regular physical exercise and lots of praise are essential. External Factors: Poverty and deprivation: poor diet, inadequate housing, lack of education, lack of access to play and leisure, low aspirations and expectations Good education can help the individual to break from the poverty and secure them a better brighter future. Family environment/background: neglecting parents, abusive parents, parents with alcohol or other drug-taking problems, ill parents who are not able to provide adequate environment for their children, etc. Parents who are ill and no longer able to fully provide for their children could be provided with carers who would help with the overall smooth running of the household, caring for needs of the disabled parent and the needs of the children, while keeping the family itself together. Personal choices: from certain age children/ young people make some decisions for themselves which can have effect on their development, e. g. taking drugs, changing their diet, etc. To help to prevent drug-taking it is important to support the development of a positive self-image and healthy self-esteem; education and raising awareness of dangers of drug-abuse is also a helpful preventative measure. Looked after/care status: children in residential care, in foster families, in their own family but having care status (they are the responsibility of local authorities). If children are being fostered it is beneficial if siblings can stay together. Education: Educational system, through family itself, through other groups (religious groups, sport groups, hobbies and interests, etc. ) Finding out strengths of an individual (which do not have to necessarily academic) and building upon those to build a healthy self-esteem and recognition of self-worth Ã¢â¬â this can help to compe with other weaker areas in a positive way. 023 Task C Report Produce a short report in the form of an induction pack for new staff at a setting, covering the following. a. Give two examples of assessment methods that could be used to monitor a child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s development. (Ref 3. 1) b. Give three examples of why sometimes child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s development does not follow the expected pattern. (Ref 3. 2) c. Give one explanation of how disability can impact and affect development. (Ref 3. 3) d. Give three examples of different types of intervention that could promote positive outcomes for the child/young person, where development is not following the expected pattern. (Ref 3. 4) a. In our setting we use several assessment methods to monitor our children? s development. The most used one is a short free description on sticky labels Ã¢â¬â these capture a specific short observation in a specific area of development (e. g. Physical Development); the date and the identified area/ areas get recorded on the label. This method of recording information is useful for gathering evidence of the progress of development in specific areas and building a developmental profile of an individual child. We also use specific observation sheets, on which we capture a more detailed and complex observation. In the next section on the sheet the observation is evaluated and areas of the development are identified (often more than one). In the last section we identify the next steps for the child and how we can help the child to achieve that. We have two types of observation sheets in our settings following this format Ã¢â¬â one is purely written observation, the other one is a photo observation sheet. This method of recording and evaluation allows us not only to add to the developmental profile of each child but also to plan effectively to further support the child? s development. b. There are many possible reason why at times the development might not follow the expected pattern. Apart from the most obvious ones, such as disabilities and special learning needs, the development can get affected by external factors, such as environmental reasons, cultural reasons, social reasons; and specific individual reasons, such as emotional reasons, physical reasons and communication difficulties. Environmental reasons: Among environmental reasons which may affect child? s development is for example where and in what conditions a child lives and what type of school they attend. Social reasons: There might be big differences between children in terms of wealth of their families, family status and family structure (big family with strong bonds in comparison to divorced parents with negative mutual relationship), education of parents as well as their ability to tune themselves to the needs of their children Ã¢â¬â all of these will affect the way children will be developing. Communication skills: Slower developing communication skills have got potential to negatively influence the development in other areas. The inability to effectively express themselves may result in frustrations in children and aggressive behaviour as well as consequently lower literacy skills. Similar effects can be observed in children whose families? language is not the dominant language of the country. If the dominant language is not fully acquired the child may significantly struggle once at school. c. Disability can affect more than one area of development as children can become frustrated and their self-esteem can be lowered. The attitudes of low expectations and stereotyping by others will also have a secondary negative impact on a child? s development. d. There are several ways how difficulties in development can be recognised, monitored and positively supported. Educational establishments will have appointed SENCO, a person who is responsible for identification and organising further support for children with special needs. If appropriate Educational psychologist will be contacted to make a full assessment and recommendations in how to support individuals in education (behavioural problems and learning difficulties). Suggested interventions may be discussed with parents and with learning support assistants and individual educational plan might be written up and followed. If there are any issues with speech and communication, Speech and language therapist will be consulted Ã¢â¬â the outcomes of the assessment will lead to a specific plan of action, often involving regular contact in which special exercises will be explained, practised and taught to children and their parents/carers/other professionals for them to be able to support the children outside the sessions. If a child? s physical development is affected, physiotherapist can provide help with special exercises and massages to aid the physical development, maximize the range of movement and develop the appropriate movement control. Task D Report Produce a report which explains the following: a. Why is early identification of speech, language or communication delay important for a child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being? (Ref 4. 1) b. What are the potential risks for the child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being if any speech, language or communication delay is not identified early? (Ref 4. 1) c. Analyse the importance of early identification of the potential risks of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and disorders. (Ref 4. 1) d. Who might be involved in a multi-agency team to support a child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication development? (Ref 4. 2) e. How, when and why would a multi-agency approach be applied? (Ref 4. 3) f. Give four different examples of play opportunities and describe how you would put them into practice to support the development of a child/young personÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, language and communication. (Ref 4. 3) a. Early identification of the language and communication difficulties is important as it can support the development to prevent further (secondary) impact on other areas. Also, as the brains in young children have not finished their development, the earlier we can intervene, the better prospects of success we have. b. Problems in language and communication can have a negative effect on other areas of development, such as cognitive and social development. Children with language and communication difficulties are more likely to struggle at school in learning to read and write, which can have further negative impact not only on other subjects but more importantly on their self-esteem. Children with such problems can become gradually isolated. c. Early identification of the potential risks of late recognition to speech, language and communication delays and disorders is very important in terms of putting the most appropriate interventions in place to support the development and benefit the children? s needs. Well timed and well tailored intervention has got the potential to optimize the development and to minimize potential negative impact for other areas of development. d. In the multi-agency team to support the child with speech, language and communication there will be the child? s GP or a health visitor, who will make a referral to a speech and language specialist. If there is a suspicion that the communication difficulties are connected with learning difficulties Educational Psychologist will be consulted. When it is decided on the type of intervention needed, the parents, the educational setting professionals and the rest of the team should work together in order to implement the chosen intervention in order to meet the needs of the child. e. Multi-agency approach is used when parents and/ or other professionals (such as GP, early years settings, etc. ) have recognised that a child is in need of additional help to aid the development. Different professionals are involved in the assessment of the needs (e. g. GP to assess potential hearing or other impairments) and speech and language therapist devises the best possible individual support. Multi-agency approach brings together different fields of expertise to assure the best possible outcome for the child. f. There are many informal opportunities how children? s communication and language development can be supported. These might often be more effective than formal exercises as they naturally meet the child in they world of play, making it more motivating and fun. Nursery rhymes and songs Ã¢â¬â Children enjoy joining in nursery rhymes and songs. These are short and memorable and their rhythmical pattern make them perfect little exercises for developing language, pronunciation and fluency (good practice when dealing with stutter). Books are perfect for developing passive and active vocabulary, understanding meaning of words and learning correct sentence structure informally. Books are a wonderful way to spark children? s imagination as well as teaching them to express themselves about the world around them by providing the relevant vocabulary. Pictures in books make it possible for children from the earliest age to actively engage with the story as well as to engage in a dialogue with another person. Dressing up and role play again helps the child in an informal way to engage in talking and communication with others whilst enjoying the imaginative play. Puppets are a fantastic way how to involve children in communication through play. Children are fascinated by puppets and enjoy adults taking active part in their play, which again allows for an opportunity to develop language and communication in a fun way. 023 Task E Complete table Complete the table on the next page, showing how the different types of transitions can affect children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s development and evaluate how having positive relationships during this period of transition would be of benefit. Additional Guidance Different types are: a. Emotional, affected by personal experience, e. g. bereavement, entering/leaving care. b. Physical, e. g. moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another. c. Physiological e. g. puberty, long-term medical conditions. d. Intellectual, e. g. moving from pre-school to primary, to post-primary. (Ref 5. 1, 5. 2) Give ONE specific example of a transition Give ONE possible effect on children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s development Evaluate the benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition ~ provide ONE example Emotional: Bereavement Depression which may affect sleep pattern, children may become lethargic and less interested in engaging in any activities which may affect they social, emotional and cognitive development Positive relationship with open communication and listening skills allows for a child to ask difficult questions and share their worries and sadness, to talk over difficult memories and anxieties about the future. This may help with overcoming the past and the sadness. Physical: Moving home Moving home may effect the children social development as they may lose previous friends and find themselves unable to fit in new friendship groups. Some children might start having food issues, such as overeating to deal with anxieties. This can affect their emotional, social and physical development. Positive relation can provide a helping hand with dealing with the new situation while supporting the self-esteem and encouraging the confidence in a young person. Positive relationship can also act as model of skills of how to establish a new relationship. Physiological: Gaining a physical disability Ã¢â¬â e. g. lost limb Withdrawal Ã¢â¬â children may become very solitary, unable and unwilling to join in with their peers, which can affect their physical, emotional, social as well as cognitive development. Positive relationship will communicate acceptance and healthy support in dealing with a life-changing situation; this should help in dealing with difficulties as they come Intellectual: Moving from pre-school to primary school Lack of concentration and motivation as the child might feel overwhelmed by new routines and new demands which they might find very difficult Ã¢â¬â this may affect their natural cognitive development and they might regress into safer younger stage of development. Positive relationship will allow for a child to feel safe, valued and as achieving (in their own pace) by identifying the appropriate approach of working with the child with the sensitivity to their specific needs and pace of development.