Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Paula Mason 04/20/2013 Theories of Personality Similarities and Differences between Rogers and Maslows interpretation of Self- actualization Rogers and Maslow are from a Humanistic approach to thought. The human approach takes away from the man and robot statement that the behaviorists maintain. Rogers and Maslow engaged in a concept of self-actualization and characteristics and the requirements to achieve it. Rogers and Maslow theories of self -actualization have similarities and differences. These two discussed that the driving force of human needs system is self-actualization. Rogers, one of the most influential founders of the humanistic approach, has been cited more and was a major influence on clinicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The self is the central construct in this theory. It is based largely on life experiences, social evaluation and the attitude of the individuals significant other. If the individual experiences conditional positive regard from their parents, the individual develops their parents values and conditions of worth. If self-concept is based on the values of the significant other this can give r ise to incongruence between self and experience. Self-concept and conditions of worth are linked together and are important. They are guidelines as to how people behave towards others because people value their opinion of themselves above their own. This affects their decision making and can result in them doing things to please others rather than satisfying their own needs. Conditions of worth reduce peoples self-confidence, trust in their own feelings and can affect their potential towards self-actualization (Rogers 1986).Ã¢â¬ 6 1. Self-worth (self-esteem) Ã¢â¬â what we think about ourselves. Rogers shared his feelings on self-worth: that in early childhood our feelings of self-worth developed and formed because of the interaction with the father and mother. Self-worth can range from very low to very high. Rogers stated that someone who has high self-worth has positive feelings and confidence about themselves, accepts failure and is open with people at times. Self-worth people may avoid challenges in life and can be defensive with otherShow MoreRelatedThe Theories Of Personality And Social Cognitive Theory1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesan individuals personality; the main theorists for the Trait Approach are Costa and Mccrae. The Humanistic Approach focuses on the way an individual behaves and why they behave in that way; the main theorists for the humanistic approach are Maslow and Rogers. The Social Cognitive Theory highlights how factors, such as: cognitive, behavioural, personal and environmental, inter act to determine behaviour; the main theorists for the Social Cognitive Theory are Mischel and Bandura. Trait ApproachRead MoreUnderstanding counselling theory. Essay example1389 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswords) Page 5 : How does Person-centred counselling, influence the understanding of the development of concept of self? (245 words) Page 6 : How does person-centred approach inform counselling practice? (267 words) Page 8-10: Key features and comparison of different models, with the person-centred model. (400 words) Page 11 : Conclusion. (200 words) Page 12: References Page 13 : Bibliography. Introduction In this assignment, I will be explaining in more detail; the person centred model Read MoreThe Humanistic-Existential Perspective Essay798 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Individual is taken into consideration. This concept suggests every person percieves the world differently through their own self-creation, thus making us unique. According to this premise, to subject the patients to a set of formulas, in comparison to psychodynamic theory, is to limit the therapists knowledge. This perspective also understands that while society sets rules to follow, such rules cannot define a human life. The third premise is Human Potental. This emphasizes the abilityRead MoreComparison of Behaviorism and the Humanistic Approach3225 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesthe limitations of behaviourism. The humanistic approach is often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"third forceÃ¢â¬ in psychology coming after psychoanalysis and behaviourism; it is an alternative approach to psychology (Maslow, 1968). It offered a mo re wholesome approach to psychology at the time in comparison to behaviourism and psychoanalysis. This essay will compare and contrast behaviourism and humanistic psychology; it will focus on their contributions to psychological theory and their applications in the realRead MoreTheory of Personality Essay2510 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageshave contributed to Humanistic Psychology, one of the most renowned is, Abraham Maslow. Humanistic psychology is defined as: Explicitly concerned with the human dimension of psychology and the human context for the development of psychological theory. (wikipedia.com) Abraham Maslow was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1908, and attended City College in New York for three semesters, where he studied law. Maslow moved from New York to Wisconsin where he then attended the University of WisconsinRead MoreThe Theoretical Approaches Of Psychology1651 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesg. Menzies (1937) and J.B. Watsons (1920) experiment (Little Albert), where little Albert drew the findings for operate conditioning on humans. This suggests that explanations can be scientifically tested and supported. Despite this, humanist Carl Rogers rejects the scientific method of using experiments to measure and control variables as it creates an artificial environment and has low ecological validity, also rejecting the experiments by continuing humans cannot be equalled to animals and thatRead MoreAnalysis and Action Plan for Student Learning (AAPSL)1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesschool leadership will establish a professional learning community with a minimum of three peers to resea rch areas of need in student learning and development in school. On January 17, 2012 a request was made for permission via email from principal, Roger Edwards to complete my internship at HCHS. He responded the same day and granted me the approval by email. See email 1A. On February 1, 2012 a request was made to one of our Assistant Principals, Mr. Heriberto Corral and requested permission to establishRead MoreCarl Rogers : An Influential Humanistic Psychologist1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCarl Rogers Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was an influential humanistic psychologist, who built off the foundation laid by Maslow (McLeod, 2007). As set out below, Rogers established nineteen propositions that form the foundation of his theories (Guide, n.d.): 1. People make sense of themselves, others and the world based on their unique and constantly changing experiences. 2. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of reality is unique and shaped by what the person experiences and how the person deals with thoseRead MoreBiological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality Essay1251 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbiological factors that influence the formation of personality. It will also examine the basic aspects of humanistic theory that are incompatible with biological explanations of personality. The proponents of humanistic theory were Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This theory focuses on the potential of individuals and emphasizes the essence of growth and self actualization. The basic belief of humanistic theory is that people are naturally good with social and mental problems. They have emphasizedRead MoreThe Psychology of Personality1307 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning Head: Psychology of Personality Psychology of Personality Introduction 1.The foundations of the third force of psychology were laid by Carl Rogers, William Glasser and Abraham Maslow who coined the term of the third force of psychology. The main belief of the third psychology is that all people are good in an inherent manner and through a constant change in the beliefs, attitudes as well as the values; a person can become self-actualized who has the morals and the beliefs that can help
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
DEVELOPING AUTOMOBILE IN BANGLADESH Minhazul Arefin,Niloy kumar dey ID:13207009, Department of BSME International University Of Bussines Agriculture And Technology. Abstuct: Automobile is the one popular side of engineering. Now-a-days the demand of automobile product is rising high.But automobile is not developed much and it is so rare for our Bangladeshi people.Bangladesh is developing country but here automobile product is not available.And the automobile product price is high for get ride from this problem we have to developing.our automobile side here,I disscuss about problem of developing automobile, Key word: automobile, Introduction: An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportinÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The concept of product architecture is the scheme by which the function of a product is allocated to physical components. The use of a platform strategy provides several benefits: * Greater flexibility between plants (the possibility of transferring production from one plant to another due to standardization), * Cost reduction achieved through using resources on a global scale, * Increased use of plants (higher productivity due to the reduction in the number of differences), and * Reduction of the number of platforms as a result of their localization on a worldwide basis. The automobile platform strategy has become important in new product development and in the innovation process. The finished products have to be responsive to market needs and to demonstrate distinctiveness while Ã¢â¬â at the same time Ã¢â¬â they must be developed and produced at low cost. Adopting such a strategy affects the development process and also has an important impact on an automaker s organizational structure. A platform strategy also offers advantages for the globalization process of automobile firms.Show MoreRelatedTechnology And Its Impact On Society849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexample is the country of Bangladesh. The country is located in South Asia. The authors (Shariful et al. 2015), explains that improved communication technologies will help the crippling health care service that is currently employed in Bangladesh. According to the authors (Shariful et al. 2015), Ã¢â¬Å"Common standards for health information and communications technologies are need ed to facilitate data management and sharing among different databases.Ã¢â¬ (p 807). In the country of Bangladesh, the health care serviceRead MoreChange Management : India s Largest Automobile Company1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesneed to improve business performance (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2008). Introduction to TATA Motors: Tata Motors limited is IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest automobile company was established in 1945. It is the first company amongst IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s engineering sector to be listed in New York stock exchange and has emerged as an international automobile company. It is a leading global automobile manufacturer which holds USD 42 billion organizations that covers an extensive variety of cars, buses, and defense and sports vehiclesRead MoreAutomobile Industry Pest Analysis1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAutomobile Industry PEST Analysis 1. Political Factors A) Environment Concerns: Leading to the quest for eco-friendly cars, people would prone to buy hybrid or even pure electric cars in the future. B) Government Regulations: Limitation on high emission car purchase, and the restrictive passage of autos in downtown area, as well as the limitation on license plate (number plate) in huge cosmopolitans. C) Some pioneering states in the US have started to set the rules to govern robotizedRead MoreTata Motors : India s Largest Automobile Company960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMotors is IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest automobile company by revenue and is also one of the popular vehicle manufacturers in India. Tata Motors began manufacturing commercial vehicles in 1954 with a 15-year collaboration agreement with Daimler Benz of Germany. This partnership has led Tata Motors be the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top five manufacturers of medium and heavy trucks and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest medium and heavy bus manufacturer. TataÃ¢â¬â¢s product line ranges from worldÃ¢â¬â¢s least expensive automobile vehicle, the Tata NanoRead MoreLuxrious Cars Market Analysis in Bangladesh10008 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pagesworld today, the latest vehicle technology play an important role in making your business more successful and effective of 100 years, technological advances in the automotive sector is growing and significa nt development. For the automobile industry car companies in Bangladesh go ahead with the speed of all time is used for all types of vehicles.Ã Basically; automotive technology refers to technology that is set up in popular models of cars. With the time change and increased competition, the emergenceRead MoreCase Study of the Great Lakes1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswidely used in the domestic and international markets until the turn of the twentieth century due to the public health concerns it raises. As a result, this chemical has been banned in usage of producing gasoline in the Western world, and other developing companies. However, third world and other undeveloped countries have not made the transition to unleaded gasoline because their automotive markets have become solely dependent on this form of gasoline. The Lead Additives Industry and the FiveRead MoreLeast Depeloping Countries943 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLeast developing countries are the countries which are poor in agricultural that are seeking to become more advanced economically and socially. Most of the countries are developing, less developed or Third World countries. However, the big difference in wealth and economic development amongst Third countries, the concluding are typically characterised by a low average per capita income, high external debt (to foreign banks and states in respect of loans acquired), a strong dependance on agricultureRead MoreJeffrey Sachs : The Best Sellers Of New York1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswell over two decades of experience to propose an exclusively knowledgeable view of the basics to economic prosperity in the present day world and the measures that are required to attain welfare for all. He is well known for his role in helping developing countries bolster their economy. Sachs has written three of the best sellers of New York Times in the past, including the End Of Poverty which I will be reviewing in this essay. His main argument is that the affluent nations need to contribute moreRead MoreReasons of Businesses Conducting Operations in Third World Countries1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescountries due to bacterial and viruses in water. Almost 1.7 billion people in developing countries do not have an access to safe drinking water. There are 114 towns in India who do not have proper sewage system and dump impure water in to Ganges River. Out of 3,119 towns, only 209 have partial sewage treatment in India. Soil and Air pollution has also led several health problems in third world countries. Philippines and Bangladesh are among those countries who are suffering from extreme pollution spreadRead MoreMarketing Mix Of Producing Bio Friendly Plastics2509 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesTable of Contents Executive Summary 1 1. Company Background 2 1.1 Establishment 2 1.2 General Objective 3 1.3 Award and Success 3 2. Market of ECOVATIVE Product in Bangladesh 3 3. Marketing Mix analysis 4 3.1 Product 4 4. Mushroom Surfboards 6 3.2 Price 6 3.3 Place 7 3.4 Promotion 8 4. Production cost analysis 8 Reference 9 Executive Summary The project focuses on a company ECOVATIVE that is producing bio-friendly plastics those help to fulfill the human demand as well as save the environment
Monday, December 9, 2019
The National Socialist German WorkersÃ¢â¬â¢ Party Almost Died One Essay morning in 1919. It numbered only a few dozen grumblersÃ¢â¬â¢ it had noorganization and no political ideas. But many among the middle classadmired the NazisÃ¢â¬â¢ muscular opposition to the Social Democrats. Andthe Nazis themes of patriotism and militarism drew highly emotionalresponses from people who could not forget GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s prewar imperialgrandeur. In the national elections of September 1930, the Nazis garnerednearly 6.5 million votes and became second only to the SocialDemocrats as the most popular party in Germany. In Northeim, where in1928 Nazi candidates had received 123 votes, they now polled 1,742, arespectable 28 percent of the total. The nationwide success drew evenfaster in just three years, party membership would rise from about100,000 to almost a million, and the number of local branches wouldincrease tenfold. The new members included working-class people,farmers, and middle-class professionals. They were both bettereducated and younger then the Old Fighters, who had been the backboneof the party during its first decade. The Nazis now presentedthemselves as the party of the young, the strong, and the pure, inopposition to an establishment populated by the elderly, the weak, andthe dissolute. Hitler was born in a small town in Austria in 1889. Asa young boy, he showed little ambition. After dropping out of highschool, he moved to Vienna to study art, but he was denied the chanceto join Vienna academy of fine arts. When WWI broke out, Hitler joined Kaiser WilhelmerÃ¢â¬â¢s army as aCorporal. He was not a person of great importance. He was a creatureof a Germany created by WWI, and his behavior was shaped by that warand its consequences. He had emerged from Austria with manyprejudices, including a powerful prejudice against Jews. Again, he wasa product of his times for many Austrians and Germans wereprejudiced against the Jews. In Hitlers case the prejudice had become maniacal it was adominant force in his private and political personalities. Anti-Semitism was not a policy for Adolf Hitlerit was religion. Andin the Germany of the 1920s, stunned by defeat, and the ravages of theVersailles treaty, it was not hard for a leader to convince millionsthat one element of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s society was responsible for most ofthe evils heaped upon it. The fact is that HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s anti-Semitism wasself-inflicted obstacle to his political success. The Jews, like otherGermans, were shocked by the discovery that the war had not beenfought to a standstill, as they were led to believe in November 1918,but that Germany had , in fact, been defeated and was to be treated asa vanquished country. Had Hitler not embarked on his policy ofdisestablishing the Jews as Germans, and later of exterminating themin Europe, he could have counted on their loyalty. There is no reasonto believe anything else. On the evening of November 8, 1923, WyukeVavaruab State Cinnussuiber Gustav Rutter von Kahr was making apolitical speech in MunichÃ¢â¬â¢s spra wling B?rgerbr?ukeller, some 600Nazis and right-wing sympathizers surrounded the beer hall. Hitlerburst into the building and leaped onto a table, brandishing arevolver and firing a shot into the ceiling. Ã¢â¬Å"The NationalRevolution,Ã¢â¬ he cried, Ã¢â¬Å"has begun!Ã¢â¬ At that point, informed thatfighting had broken out in another part of the city, Hitler rushed tothat scene. His prisoners were allowed to leave, and they talked aboutorganizing defenses against the Nazi coup. Hitler was of coursefurious. And he was far from finished. At about 11 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock on themorning of November 9the anniversary of the founding of the GermanRepublic in 19193,000 Hitler partisans again gathered outside theB?rgerbr?ukeller. To this day, no one knows who fired the first shot. But a shotrang out, and it was followed by fusillades from both sides. HermannG?ring fell wounded in the thigh and both legs. Hitler flattenedhimself against the pavement; he was unhurt. General Ludenorffcontinued to march stolidly toward the police line, which parted tolet him pass through (he was later arrested, tried and acquitted). Behind him, 16 Nazis and three policemen lay sprawled dead among themany wounded. The next year, R?hm and his band joined forces with thefledgling National Socialist Party in Adolf HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s Munich Beer HallPutsch. Himmler took part in that uprising, but he played such a minorrole that he escaped arrest. The R?hm-Hitler alliance survived thePutsch, and ?hmÃ¢â¬â¢s 1,500-man band grew into the Sturmabteilung, the SA,HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s brown-shirted private army, that bullied the Communists andDemocrats. Hitler recruited a handful of men to act as his bodyguardsand protect him from Communist toughs, other rivals, and even the S.A. Schizophrenia or Drug abuse? EssayThe Ã¢â¬Å"experimental peopleÃ¢â¬ were also used by Nazi doctors whoneeded practice performing various operations. One doctor at Auschwitzperfected his amputation technique on live prisoners. After he hadfinished, his maimed patients were sent off to the gas chamber. A fewJews who had studied medicine were allowed to live if they assistedthe SS doctors. Ã¢â¬Å"I cut the flesh of healthy young girls,Ã¢â¬ recalled aJewish physician who survived at terrible cost. Ã¢â¬Å"I immersed the bodiesof dwarfs and cripples in calcium chloride (to preserve them), or hadthem boiled so the carefully prepared skeletons might safely reach theThird ReichÃ¢â¬â¢s museums to justify, for future generations, thedestruction of an entire race. I could never erase these memories frommy mind.Ã¢â¬ But the best killing machine were the Ã¢â¬Å"shower bathsÃ¢â¬ of death. After their arrival at a death camp, the Jews who had been chosen todie at once were told that they were to have a shower. Filthy by theirlong, miserable journey, they sometimes applauded the announcement. Countless Jews and other victims went peacefully to the showerroomswhich were gas chambers in disguise. In the anterooms to the gas chambers, many of the doomed peoplefound nothing amiss. At Auschwitz, signs in several languages said,Ã¢â¬Å"Bath and Disinfectant,Ã¢â¬ and inside the chambers other signsadmonished, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget your soap and towel.Ã¢â¬ Unsuspecting victimscooperated willingly. Ã¢â¬Å"They got out of their clothes so routinely,Ã¢â¬ Said a Sobibor survivor. Ã¢â¬Å"What could be more natural?Ã¢â¬ In time, rumors about the death camps spread, and undergroundnewspapers in the Warsaw ghetto even ran reports that told of the gaschambers and the crematoriums. But many people did not believe thestoried, and those who did were helpless in any case. Facing the gunsof the SS guards, they could only hope and pray to survive. As oneJewish leader put it, Ã¢â¬Å"We must be patient and a miracle will occur.Ã¢â¬ There were no miracles. The victims, naked and bewildered, were shovedinto a line. Their guards ordered them forward, and flogged those whohung back. The doors to the gas chambers were locked behind them. Itwas all over quickly. The war came home to Germany. Scarcely had Hitler recovered fromthe shock of the July 20 bombing when he was faced with the loss ofFrance and Belgium and of great conquests in the East. Enemy troops inoverwhelming numbers were converging on the Reich. By the middle ofAugust 1944, the Russian summer offensives, beginning June 10 andunrolling one after another, had brought the Red Army to theborder of East Prussia, bottled up fifty German divisions in theBaltic region, penetrated to Vyborg in Finland, destroyed Army GroupCenter and brought an advance on this front of four hundred miles insix weeks to the Vistula opposite Warsaw, while in the south a newattack which began on August 20 resulted in the conquest of Rumania bythe end of the month and with it the Ploesti oil fields, the onlymajor source of natural oil for the German armies. On August 26Bulgaria formally withdrew from the war and the Germans began tohastily clear out of that country. In September Finland gave up andturned on the German troops which refused to evacuate its territory. In the West, France was liberated quickly. In General Patton, thecommander of the newly formed U.S. Third Army, the Americans had founda tank general with the dash and flair of Rommel in Africa. After thecapture of Avranches on July 30, he had left Brittany to wither on thevine and begun a great sweep around the German armies in Normandy,moving southeast to Orleans on the Loire and then due east toward theSeine south of Paris. By August 23 the Seine was reached southeast andnorthwest of the capital, and two days later the great city, the gloryof France, was liberated after four years of German occupation whenGeneral Jacques LeclercÃ¢â¬â¢s French 2nd Armored Division and the U.S. 4thInfantry Division broke into it and found that French resistance unitswere largely in control.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Sailing to Byzantium Essay W. B. Yeats poem Sailing to Byzantium is an allusion to the agony of old age and human mortality, and was written as a part of a collection of poems called Tower. It is in very old verse form which is written as a narrative verse in first person, with four eight line stanzas. It has a rhyming scheme of ABABABCC, or two trios of alternating rhyme followed by one couplet. This rhyming scheme gives the reader the sense that the final two lines of each stanza are the most important, and that the first six are leading up to the conclusion of the stanza. Each line takes the rhythm of iambic pentameter. The tone of the poem provokes a sense of sadness in the reader as it tells of a mans desire to live forever, and how he cant accept that he has grown old and will soon die. This tone is reinforced by the sound of the letter o, heavily used throughout the poem. The poem talks of the mortality of the living, and how the elderly are a reminder of this. The youth are caught up in the moment and do not wish to be reminded that there will come a time when they too will grow old and die. We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Upon this realisation, he decides to travel to the holy city of Byzantium. Byzantium (which was renamed Constantinople, then Istanbul) was a city in the Eastern Roman Empire. The journey to Byzantium is not a literal one, but a metaphorical one which represents the acceptance of mortality, artistic splendour and a way of immortalising oneself through art. Art is an artificial creation, and is something which can stand the test of time and will remain beautiful from the moment it is first created. The use of symbolism and themes are very prevalent in conveying this message of mortality, which leads me to my guiding questions: How does Yeats use language to distinguish the difference between mortality and immortality for the reader? and How does Yeats use symbolism to convey the theme of immortality versus the transience of life? The first stanza presents an image of life to the reader; the birds in the trees, the fish filled waters, the young people who are preoccupied with their lives and loves. But in amongst the description of life Yeats refers to them as those dying generations. This is a reminder that life is inevitably followed by death, and that we are all moving closer to our deaths, or dying. It is a reminder that everything that lives is doomed. Whatever is begotten, born and dies /Caught in that sensual music all neglect /Monuments of unaging intellect. This is a crude summary of the aspects of life that everyone shares (conception, birth and death) and how all living things get caught up with the sensual music, and neglect the monuments of unaging intellect. The final line has a double meaning. The monuments of unaging intellect represents the elderly and how their minds and intelligence do not age with their bodies, but it also represents the artworks and paintings which Yeats destination, Byzantium, is so famous for. The people in paintings, sculptures and other forms of art are undying, and remain the same as they were the day they were first created for eternity. Yeats is condemning the natural as all things natural are doomed to die, and praising the artificial things as they can stand the test of times. This is paradoxical however, because without the natural, the artificial wouldnt exist. In the second stanza, Yeats likens and aged man to a scarecrow: An aged man is but a paltry thing,/A tattered coat upon a stick. This is a symbol of the elderly. Scarecrows are devices which were created to do just as their name describes to scare crows, but in the poem they represent a device which is to scare the youth. Many people fear death, and as the elderly remind the youth of their own mortality, in looking at the aged, they have a sense of fear as they are seeing what they will become. However, this is followed by unless/Soul clap its hands and sing, louder sing/for every tatter in its mortal dress. By using a personification of soul, Yeats reminds the reader that the soul is what separates each life from the next, and that for every problem it comes by, it becomes stronger. In saying this, Yeats is focusing on the fact that it is possible to avoid becoming an empty, lifeless shell, like the scarecrow, by concentrating on the soul, and therefore overcoming the constrictions of the human body. Since the journey to metaphorical one, Yeats is saying that the only way that the journey to Byzantium is possible is to learn to escape from the constraints of the body. Byzantium represents a desired destination, and in Yeats case, it is a symbol of permanence and intransience through art. During a trip to Ravenna, Yeats saw a painting which portrayed martyrs being burnt because of their faith. In the third stanza, in the line O sages standing in Gods holy fire/As in the gold mosaic of a wall, Yeats has incorporated his interpretation of this painting into the poem. He sees the martyrs as sages and the flames as the Holy Spirit. This is represents the transition between life as a mortal and life as an immortal, as at the time of their deaths the sages gained an immortal existence through being incorporated into art. The mosaic is described as gold, as this colour represents an untarnished and everlasting beauty. Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,/And be the singing-masters of my soul. Here, Yeats is referring to a spinning wheel, and the quick movement of thread through a bobbin and spool. This image of each strand of thread being merged into one constant piece symbolises how human life spawns other lives another and how each life links up with another creating a continuous flow of life. Yeats is asking the sages in the mosaic to free him from his body, which he describes as a dying animal, and guide him to Byzantium so that he too can join the artifice of eternity. The sages in the mosaic have seen many generations of people, without ageing themselves. The fourth and final stanza commences with Yeats pronouncing that once he has escaped him human form, he will never again take the form from anything natural, as from his description in the first stanza, these things are all prone to decay and death. He then proceeds to say that he would wish to take the form of a golden bird like the ones the Grecian goldsmiths used to make. He wishes to make the final transition from the transience of human life, and immortalise himself through an ancient form of art. The final line of the poem Of what is past, or passing, or to come is a reflection of the line Whatever is begotten, born and dies found in the first stanza. Yeats categorises time into past, present and future, which is a suggestion that even after escaping his human body, his mind would still be limited to what he can perceive as a human being. The idea of eternity is a concept almost impossible for a human mind to grasp, so we classify time into past, present and future. In answer to my first guiding question, there is a notable difference in the language Yeats uses depending on whether he the idea of mortality or immortality is being conveyed. For example, in the first stanza when the old country is being described, the words are limited to one or two syllables, and the language is rough and has a staccato style rhythm: The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,/Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long. The quick, often monosyllabic words help to enforce the idea that these things will eventually die, and the f and sh sounds are repeated, creating an alliteration which gives a sharper sound to the line. Yeats uses long, more flowing words in line 7, Caught in that sensual music all neglect, as if to admit that he, too, become preoccupied with this aspect of human life. In the final line of the first stanza, the reader is first introduced to the idea of an everlasting existence: Monuments of unageing intellect. This line rolls over the tongue, and is a contrast from line 5 which describes things that will die. It also displays a use of alliteration, as the letter n is echoed throughout the line. More examples language being used to emphasize the difference between transience and an endless existence can be found in the other stanzas: A tattered coat upon a stick and Monuments of its own magnificence: Consume my heart away; sick with desire/And fastened to a dying animal against Into the artifice of eternity. The lines which are referring to immortality have a much more soothing tone, whereas the lines which are referring to mortality are more staccato-like and harsher sounding. In answer to my second guiding question, Yeats use of symbolism is essential in his portrayal of immortality in opposition to mortality. The symbolism begins in the poems title, Sailing to Byzantium. Sailing symbolises a metaphorical journey, and Byzantium symbolises a desired destination, in this case, the desire to become immortal through art. In the first stanza, the images of the young lovers, fish and birds symbolise mortality and eventual death. By highlighting this component of the world he lives in, it makes it easier for the reader to understand his need for permanence. In the second stanza, the scarecrow signifies the elderly. The image of a solitary scarecrow in a field is seen often through literature and film, and in this case the scarecrow represents the neglected generation. The scarecrow is described as paltry (which means contemptible), and this symbolises how the younger generations have contempt for the older generations because they are a reminder of their own mortality. The scarecrow also represents everything that Yeats wishes to leave behind in departing his mortal existence. Finally, the image of the golden bird symbolises the flight Yeats has taken from his previous body, and the permanence he has found through art. The colour gold his also used several times throughout the poem, and this indicates everlasting beauty. Yeats uses images representing young life through to old life to demonstrate the transience of human life, but uses the constant image of the golden mosaics and the golden bird to show how art has a never-ending beauty. In conclusion, I think the main idea W. B. Yeats was trying to convey in writing this poem was that the artificial is superior to the natural, and that while all things natural are doomed to die, the artificial can exist forever. The way Yeats uses imagery helps to convey the idea that the artificial is an everlasting creation, and whereas the natural, while is beautiful at one time, eventually withers and dies. The fact that the author believes the artificial is superior to the natural becomes apparent in difference in language Yeats uses, depending on which of them he is talking about. The abrupt phrases and monosyllabic words Yeats uses to talk about the natural connote that the lives of these things, like the words, are quickly over. However, the more descriptive and flowing language used to describe things which are man-made, such as art, tells the reader that these things are longer lasting and more beautiful. I think that the way in which Yeats tells the poem complements the message he is conveying and causes the reader to contemplate their own existence. Sailing to Byzantium Essay Example Sailing to Byzantium Paper Poetry means many things to people all over the world. Poetry is an outlet or artistic and creative way of telling a story or expressing your emotions. It is something that does not require a lot of skill, but imagination and feeling. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ written by William Butler Yeats is a poem that speaks of the craving for something one cannot have and the immortality of people, art and intellect, and greatness. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem based on the theme longing for something one cannot have. In this case the old man in the poem is yearning to be young and live on forever even when his time is up. To escape death and old age the man sails to Byzantium. Byzantium is the opposite of the old man. Ã¢â¬Å"The young in one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s arms, birds in the treesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The salmon falls, the mackerel crowded seasÃ¢â¬ are lines from the poem that illustrate the youth and vibrance of Byzantium, the youth and viberance the old man desires. Throughout the poem there are lines that hint about the immortality of people and life. One can continue to live on forever spiritually or by being remembered for having a great achievement or a great impact. In the second stanza Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"An aged man is but a paltry thing. We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sailing to Byzantium specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ã¢â¬ The old man sees age as just a number. His body may be growing older, but his insides are youthful. In the third stanza Yeats writes Ã¢â¬Å"Into the artifice of eternityÃ¢â¬ . This line can translate into on the illusion of immortality. Finally, in the last stanza Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Once out of nature I shall never take my bodily form from any natural thing. Ã¢â¬ Yeats writes that once the old man has passed he will be remembered by a symbol or sculpture much like a royal emperor. He will be represented by any natural thing. In this poem it is important to the old man that he lives on forever in the magnificent paradise of Byzantium. In addition to the immortality of people, the continuous life of art and intellect were written about. In stanza one Yeats writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Caught in that sensual music all neglect, moments of unaging intellect. Ã¢â¬ These two lines illustrate the immortality of art and intellect. Though some may neglect the elders because the elderly seem to lose their intellect as they age, the older generations were basically bards of education and intellect. Intellect is something that is passed down from generation to generation, it is something that will live forever. Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem largely associated with greatness. Byzantium was a paradise. It consisted of salmon-falls, mackerel-crowded seas, gold mosaic walls, Grecian goldsmiths, and a royal emperor. Byzantium was magnificent, just like the idea of immortality. I think Yeats wrote about Byzantium and immortality together because they go hand in hand. William Butler YeatÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem about greatness and all of its elements. Byzantium was a lively place where it seemed like anything was possible. It was a paradise to escape to. To me Ã¢â¬Å"Sailing to ByzantiumÃ¢â¬ is a poem of inspiration. The poem seemed to make the idea of dying meager because one can live on forever, even past their time.